8 research outputs found

    Table1_Safety and efficacy of Xiaoyao-san for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.pdf

    No full text
    Objective: Although Xiaoyao-san (XYS) is a popular herbal remedy for indigestion, there is insufficient evidence to recommend it as a treatment option for functional dyspepsia (FD). This review aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of XYS in patients with FD, compared to conventional Western medicine (WM).Methods: Two independent reviewers searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using 11 electronic databases, including Medline and Embase, to evaluate therapeutic effects of XYS on FD up to 31 January 2023. The primary outcome was the total clinical efficacy rate (TCE), and secondary outcomes included scores of dyspepsia-related symptoms (DSS) and incidence of adverse events (AEs). The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane collaboration tool, and data synthesis and subgroup analyses were performed using the Review Manager program.Results: Six studies involving 707 participants were included in the meta-analysis. XYS significantly improved TCE compared to WM (RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.26, p = 0.002) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 59%, p = 0.06). Combination therapy also showed higher TCE than WM alone (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.41, p = 0.008), and the heterogeneity was low (I2 = 0%, p = 0.86). The results showed a greater reduction in DSS in the XYS and combination therapy groups than in the WM alone group (SMD = −0.72, 95% CI: −0.90, −0.53, p 2 = 44%, p = 0.15), especially for abdominal distension and upper abdominal pain. AEs occurred less frequently in the XYS and combination therapy groups than in the WM alone group (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.63, p = 0.006), and the heterogeneity was low (I2 = 45%, p = 0.18). The certainty of the evidence for each outcome was rated from “very low” to “high.”Conclusion: This review suggests that XYS is effective and safe for reducing complaints in patients with FD. However, high-quality RCTs should be conducted to establish more convincing therapeutic evidence of XYS for the treatment of FD.Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero, CRD42020178842</p

    Table2_Safety and efficacy of Xiaoyao-san for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.docx

    No full text
    Objective: Although Xiaoyao-san (XYS) is a popular herbal remedy for indigestion, there is insufficient evidence to recommend it as a treatment option for functional dyspepsia (FD). This review aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of XYS in patients with FD, compared to conventional Western medicine (WM).Methods: Two independent reviewers searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using 11 electronic databases, including Medline and Embase, to evaluate therapeutic effects of XYS on FD up to 31 January 2023. The primary outcome was the total clinical efficacy rate (TCE), and secondary outcomes included scores of dyspepsia-related symptoms (DSS) and incidence of adverse events (AEs). The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane collaboration tool, and data synthesis and subgroup analyses were performed using the Review Manager program.Results: Six studies involving 707 participants were included in the meta-analysis. XYS significantly improved TCE compared to WM (RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.26, p = 0.002) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 59%, p = 0.06). Combination therapy also showed higher TCE than WM alone (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.41, p = 0.008), and the heterogeneity was low (I2 = 0%, p = 0.86). The results showed a greater reduction in DSS in the XYS and combination therapy groups than in the WM alone group (SMD = −0.72, 95% CI: −0.90, −0.53, p 2 = 44%, p = 0.15), especially for abdominal distension and upper abdominal pain. AEs occurred less frequently in the XYS and combination therapy groups than in the WM alone group (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.63, p = 0.006), and the heterogeneity was low (I2 = 45%, p = 0.18). The certainty of the evidence for each outcome was rated from “very low” to “high.”Conclusion: This review suggests that XYS is effective and safe for reducing complaints in patients with FD. However, high-quality RCTs should be conducted to establish more convincing therapeutic evidence of XYS for the treatment of FD.Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero, CRD42020178842</p

    Table3_Safety and efficacy of Xiaoyao-san for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.docx

    No full text
    Objective: Although Xiaoyao-san (XYS) is a popular herbal remedy for indigestion, there is insufficient evidence to recommend it as a treatment option for functional dyspepsia (FD). This review aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of XYS in patients with FD, compared to conventional Western medicine (WM).Methods: Two independent reviewers searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using 11 electronic databases, including Medline and Embase, to evaluate therapeutic effects of XYS on FD up to 31 January 2023. The primary outcome was the total clinical efficacy rate (TCE), and secondary outcomes included scores of dyspepsia-related symptoms (DSS) and incidence of adverse events (AEs). The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane collaboration tool, and data synthesis and subgroup analyses were performed using the Review Manager program.Results: Six studies involving 707 participants were included in the meta-analysis. XYS significantly improved TCE compared to WM (RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.26, p = 0.002) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 59%, p = 0.06). Combination therapy also showed higher TCE than WM alone (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.41, p = 0.008), and the heterogeneity was low (I2 = 0%, p = 0.86). The results showed a greater reduction in DSS in the XYS and combination therapy groups than in the WM alone group (SMD = −0.72, 95% CI: −0.90, −0.53, p 2 = 44%, p = 0.15), especially for abdominal distension and upper abdominal pain. AEs occurred less frequently in the XYS and combination therapy groups than in the WM alone group (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.63, p = 0.006), and the heterogeneity was low (I2 = 45%, p = 0.18). The certainty of the evidence for each outcome was rated from “very low” to “high.”Conclusion: This review suggests that XYS is effective and safe for reducing complaints in patients with FD. However, high-quality RCTs should be conducted to establish more convincing therapeutic evidence of XYS for the treatment of FD.Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero, CRD42020178842</p

    Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)

    Get PDF
    <div><p>Objective</p><p>The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated.</p> <p>Methods</p><p>A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale), visual analogue scale (VAS), and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96). Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS.</p> <p>Results</p><p>Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale “disturbance of reality testing” was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967). SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (p<0.05), education (p<0.05), and self-reported smartphone addiction scores (p<0.001) in SAS.</p> <p>Conclusions</p><p>This study developed the first scale of the smartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid.</p> </div

    Science and society: in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    No full text
    eIF2α phosphorylation in hepatocytes is dispensable for survival of adult mice. (a) Diagram depicting the four genotypes of mice used in these experiments. S/A and A/A represent heterozygous and homozygous eIF2α Ser51Ala (*) mutation(s) in exon 2 of one eIF2α allele and both eIF2α alleles, respectively. fTg/0 represents the floxed wild type (WT) eIF2α transgene driven by the CMV enhancer and chicken β-actin promoter (Enh-Pro). The loxP sequences (black arrowheads) allow excision of the WT eIF2α floxed transgene (fTg) and expression of EGFP, an indicator of recombination. CRE Hep /0 represents the Cre recombinase transgene driven by the promoter (Alfp) of Alb1 (encoding albumin) and the enhancer of Afp (encoding alpha-fetoprotein). (b) Efficiency of deletion of the fTg in liver tissues. Results from quantitative RT-PCR analyses of transgenic and total eIF2α mRNAs are shown. Data are means ± SEM (n = 4 ~ 5 mice per group); ### p < 0.001; Cont. vs A/A Hep . (c) Western blot analysis of eIF2α protein expression driven by the fTg in liver tissues. To quantity expression of eIF2α, blots were incubated with anti-eIF2α antibody followed by IRDye-800 goat anti-rabbit IgG (LI-COR). Membranes were scanned on an Odyssey scanner (LI-COR) (lower two panels in left panels) and quantified with the Odyssey Software package. (d) Western blot analysis of liver lysates in Cont. and A/A Hep mice at the indicated times after Tm injection. Cont. mice and A/A Liv mice were injected with vehicle or tunicamycin (Tm, 1 mg/kg). (e) Body weight measurements of fTg -deleted A/A Liv mice. At the weeks, body weight was measured in both male and female mice. Data are means ± SEM (n = 6-14 mice per group). (PDF 1987 kb
    corecore