10 research outputs found

    Ein unzerstörbares Relikt: Der Einkaufswagen im postapokalyptischen Film

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    Da kein Abstract des Artikels vorhanden ist, finden Sie hier den Beginn des Artikels: Dinge im Film haben die F√§higkeit und Funktion Handlungen voranzutreiben, Figuren und Umgebung zu charakterisieren, wirken als Metaphern, Symbole und Zeichen und ¬ęevozieren narrative, dramatische, semantische Konstellationen ‚Äď durch Settings, Standardsituationen und Genres [‚Ķ]¬Ľ.In folgendem Essay widmen wir unsere Aufmerksamkeit dem Objekt des Einkaufswagens innerhalb des postapokalyptischen Subgenres. Filme innerhalb eines Genres (und Subgenres) sind von bestimmen Konventionen gepr√§gt, die sich wiederholen und durch diese Wiederholung transtextuell auf bestimmte Sachverhalte verweisen. Bei der Recherche zu dieser Arbeit fiel uns auf, dass der Einkaufswagen in postapokalyptischen Filmen prominent auftritt. Einerseits erstaunt ein h√§ufiges Auftreten eines solch allt√§glichen Gegenstandes in Filmen nicht. Wenn man jedoch bedenkt, dass sich postapokalyptische Filme oftmals vor dem Hintergrund eines Zivilisationskollapses abspielen und allt√§gliche Handlungen wie Einkaufen entfallen, dann kann andererseits gefragt werden, warum der Einkaufswagen so oft in diesen Filmen vorkommt

    Import√Ęncia, problemas e perspectivas do melhoramento visando resist√™ncia a viroses em plantas Importance, problems and perspectives of plant breeding concerning resistance to viruses

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    As viroses s√£o um s√©rio problema para a agricultura, podendo se tomar um fator limitante para o desenvolvimento de determinadas esp√©cies. Medidas de controle, como a elimina√ß√£o dos vetores, o uso de material sadio, a rota√ß√£o de culturas e a erradica√ß√£o de plantas infectadas s√£o apenas solu√ß√Ķes tempor√°rias. A mais eficiente estrat√©gia de controle envolve o uso de cultivares melhoradas para resist√™ncia ao v√≠rus ou a seu vetor. A reduzida disponibilidade de fontes de resist√™ncia pode ser aumentada atrav√©s da tecnologia do DNA recombinante, que traz novas perspectivas para o melhoramento de plantas resistentes a viroses.<br>Virus diseases are a serious problem to agricuiture, can be a limitant factor to normal development of some crops. Control measures, like vectors elimination, healthy material use, culture rotation and infected plants eradication, are only transient solutions. The more efficient approach for control involves plant breeding resistant to virus or its vector. Reduced availability of resistance source can be increased through recombinant DNA technology, which brings new breeding perspectives to virus resistant crops


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    Geoeconomic variations in epidemiology, ventilation management, and outcomes in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome: a pooled analysis of four observational studies

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    Background: Geoeconomic variations in epidemiology, the practice of ventilation, and outcome in invasively ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain unexplored. In this analysis we aim to address these gaps using individual patient data of four large observational studies. Methods: In this pooled analysis we harmonised individual patient data from the ERICC, LUNG SAFE, PRoVENT, and PRoVENT-iMiC prospective observational studies, which were conducted from June, 2011, to December, 2018, in 534 ICUs in 54 countries. We used the 2016 World Bank classification to define two geoeconomic regions: middle-income countries (MICs) and high-income countries (HICs). ARDS was defined according to the Berlin criteria. Descriptive statistics were used to compare patients in MICs versus HICs. The primary outcome was the use of low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) for the first 3 days of mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were key ventilation parameters (tidal volume size, positive end-expiratory pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen, peak pressure, plateau pressure, driving pressure, and respiratory rate), patient characteristics, the risk for and actual development of acute respiratory distress syndrome after the first day of ventilation, duration of ventilation, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality. Findings: Of the 7608 patients included in the original studies, this analysis included 3852 patients without ARDS, of whom 2345 were from MICs and 1507 were from HICs. Patients in MICs were younger, shorter and with a slightly lower body-mass index, more often had diabetes and active cancer, but less often chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure than patients from HICs. Sequential organ failure assessment scores were similar in MICs and HICs. Use of LTVV in MICs and HICs was comparable (42·4% vs 44·2%; absolute difference -1·69 [-9·58 to 6·11] p=0·67; data available in 3174 [82%] of 3852 patients). The median applied positive end expiratory pressure was lower in MICs than in HICs (5 [IQR 5-8] vs 6 [5-8] cm H2O; p=0·0011). ICU mortality was higher in MICs than in HICs (30·5% vs 19·9%; p=0·0004; adjusted effect 16·41% [95% CI 9·52-23·52]; p&lt;0·0001) and was inversely associated with gross domestic product (adjusted odds ratio for a US$10 000 increase per capita 0·80 [95% CI 0·75-0·86]; p&lt;0·0001). Interpretation: Despite similar disease severity and ventilation management, ICU mortality in patients without ARDS is higher in MICs than in HICs, with a strong association with country-level economic status

    Health-status outcomes with invasive or conservative care in coronary disease

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    BACKGROUND In the ISCHEMIA trial, an invasive strategy with angiographic assessment and revascularization did not reduce clinical events among patients with stable ischemic heart disease and moderate or severe ischemia. A secondary objective of the trial was to assess angina-related health status among these patients. METHODS We assessed angina-related symptoms, function, and quality of life with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) at randomization, at months 1.5, 3, and 6, and every 6 months thereafter in participants who had been randomly assigned to an invasive treatment strategy (2295 participants) or a conservative strategy (2322). Mixed-effects cumulative probability models within a Bayesian framework were used to estimate differences between the treatment groups. The primary outcome of this health-status analysis was the SAQ summary score (scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better health status). All analyses were performed in the overall population and according to baseline angina frequency. RESULTS At baseline, 35% of patients reported having no angina in the previous month. SAQ summary scores increased in both treatment groups, with increases at 3, 12, and 36 months that were 4.1 points (95% credible interval, 3.2 to 5.0), 4.2 points (95% credible interval, 3.3 to 5.1), and 2.9 points (95% credible interval, 2.2 to 3.7) higher with the invasive strategy than with the conservative strategy. Differences were larger among participants who had more frequent angina at baseline (8.5 vs. 0.1 points at 3 months and 5.3 vs. 1.2 points at 36 months among participants with daily or weekly angina as compared with no angina). CONCLUSIONS In the overall trial population with moderate or severe ischemia, which included 35% of participants without angina at baseline, patients randomly assigned to the invasive strategy had greater improvement in angina-related health status than those assigned to the conservative strategy. The modest mean differences favoring the invasive strategy in the overall group reflected minimal differences among asymptomatic patients and larger differences among patients who had had angina at baseline

    Initial invasive or conservative strategy for stable coronary disease

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    BACKGROUND Among patients with stable coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia, whether clinical outcomes are better in those who receive an invasive intervention plus medical therapy than in those who receive medical therapy alone is uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned 5179 patients with moderate or severe ischemia to an initial invasive strategy (angiography and revascularization when feasible) and medical therapy or to an initial conservative strategy of medical therapy alone and angiography if medical therapy failed. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. A key secondary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or myocardial infarction. RESULTS Over a median of 3.2 years, 318 primary outcome events occurred in the invasive-strategy group and 352 occurred in the conservative-strategy group. At 6 months, the cumulative event rate was 5.3% in the invasive-strategy group and 3.4% in the conservative-strategy group (difference, 1.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 3.0); at 5 years, the cumulative event rate was 16.4% and 18.2%, respectively (difference, 121.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 124.7 to 1.0). Results were similar with respect to the key secondary outcome. The incidence of the primary outcome was sensitive to the definition of myocardial infarction; a secondary analysis yielded more procedural myocardial infarctions of uncertain clinical importance. There were 145 deaths in the invasive-strategy group and 144 deaths in the conservative-strategy group (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.32). CONCLUSIONS Among patients with stable coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia, we did not find evidence that an initial invasive strategy, as compared with an initial conservative strategy, reduced the risk of ischemic cardiovascular events or death from any cause over a median of 3.2 years. The trial findings were sensitive to the definition of myocardial infarction that was used