8,185 research outputs found

    Hall conductance of a pinned vortex lattice in a high magnetic field

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    We calculate the quasiparticle contribution to the zero temperature Hall conductance of two-dimensional extreme type-II superconductors in a high magnetic field, using the Landau basis. As one enters the superconducting phase the Hall conductance is renormalized to smaller values, with respect to the normal state result, until a quantum level-crossing transition is reached. At high values of the order parameter, where the quasiparticles are bound to the vortex cores, the Hall conductance is expected to tend to zero due to a theorem of Thouless.Comment: To appear in Journ. Phys. : Cond. Matte

    Two monopoles of one type and one of another

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    The metric on the moduli space of charge (2,1) SU(3) Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommerfield monopoles is calculated and investigated. The hyperKahler quotient construction is used to provide an alternative derivation of the metric. Various properties of the metric are derived using the hyperKahler quotient construction and the correspondence between BPS monopoles and rational maps. Several interesting limits of the metric are also considered.Comment: 48 pages, LaTeX, 2 figures. Typos corrected. Version in JHE

    Multidimensional Bosonization

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    Bosonization of degenerate fermions yields insight both into Landau Fermi liquids, and into non-Fermi liquids. We begin our review with a pedagogical introduction to bosonization, emphasizing its applicability in spatial dimensions greater than one. After a brief historical overview, we present the essentials of the method. Well known results of Landau theory are recovered, demonstrating that this new tool of many-body theory is robust. Limits of multidimensional bosonization are tested by considering several examples of non-Fermi liquids, in particular the composite fermion theory of the half-filled Landau level. Nested Fermi surfaces present a different challenge, and these may be relevant in the cuprate superconductors. We conclude by discussing the future of multidimensional bosonization.Comment: 91 pages, 15 eps figures, LaTeX. Minor changes to match the published versio

    Alpha 2 Delta (α2δ) Ligands, Gabapentin and Pregabalin: What is the Evidence for Potential Use of These Ligands in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habit, and often associates with other gastrointestinal symptoms such as feelings of incomplete bowel movement and abdominal bloating, and extra-intestinal symptoms such as headache, dyspareunia, heartburn, muscle pain, and back pain. It also frequently coexists with conditions that may also involve central sensitization processes, such as fibromyalgia, irritable bladder disorder, and chronic cough. This review examines the evidence to date on gabapentin and pregabalin which may support further and continued research and development of the α2δ ligands in disorders characterized by visceral hypersensitivity, such as IBS. The distribution of the α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel, possible mechanisms of action, pre-clinical data which supports an effect on motor–sensory mechanisms and clinical evidence that points to potential benefits in patients with IBS will be discussed

    Analysis of the Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Manistee River Watershed, Michigan

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    We document 134 caddisfly species and their seasonal and habitat affinities based on 93 samples collected from 26 sites throughout the Manistee River watershed in the lower peninsula of Michigan from May through September, 2010. Eleven of these species: Banksiola dossuaria (Say), Cheumatopsyche aphanta Ross, Cheumatopsyche pasella Ross, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ironoquia lyrata (Ross), Lepidostoma vernale (Banks), Neotrichia vibrans Ross, Nyctiophylax affinis (Banks), Oxyethira aeola Ross, Oxyethira rivicola Blickle and Morse, and Polycentropus timesis (Denning) are reported from Michigan for the first time. More than 85% of species reached peak adult abundance during June or July, although a few species reached peak abundance or emerged exclusively during the other months. Overall species richness reached its peak during early July, with a smaller peak of unique species in September. Caddisfly faunas in lakes, small streams, medium rivers, and large rivers were all distinct from each other, suggesting that the overall watershed is following patterns predicted by the River Continuum Concept. It is likely that the Michigan caddisfly fauna contains considerably more species than what is currently known

    Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Wound Closure in Mice with Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

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    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of electrical stimulation (ES) on the closure of full-thickness excisional wounds in mice with type-1 experimental diabetes mellitus (DM). Alloxon monohydrate (100mg/kg) was used to induce experimental DM in mole CD-1 mice (n = 88). Full-thickness skin excisions (1cm2) in diabetic (urine glucose \u3e 0) and non-diabetic (urine glucose = 0) mice were administered 1, 3, or 5 treatments of ES (200μs, 200 Hz) for 15 minutes, at 0 (sham), 5, 10, or 12.5 volts. Alloxon injection resulted in a positive urine glucose test in 48 mice yielding an induction rate for DM of 54.5 percent. All groups exhibited decreases in wound length, perimeter, and surface area between days 2 and 16 following the creation of wounds. Non-diabetic wounds treated with ES hod the greatest percentage (60%) of closure. Diabetic wounds treated with ES hod a greater percentage of clo­sure (36%) compared with sham-treated diabetic animals (12.5%). Treatment of wounds with the highest voltage of ES (12.5V) produced significant (P \u3c 0.01) decreases in the surface area, and significant (P \u3c 0.01) changes in the shapes of wounds in both diabetic and non-diabetic animals compared with sham-treated animals. These results support the clinical use of this adjunctive therapy to accelerate the closure of ulcers due to OM