76 research outputs found

    Effects of nutritional and environmental conditions on Sinorhizobium meliloti biofilm formation

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    Rhizobia are non-spore-forming soil bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia in a symbiosis with legume roots. However, in the absence of a legume host, rhizobia manage to survive and hence must have evolved strategies to adapt to diverse environmental conditions. The capacity to respond to variations in nutrient availability enables the persistence of rhizobial species in soil, and consequently improves their ability to colonize and to survive in the host plant. Rhizobia, like many other soil bacteria, persist in nature most likely in sessile communities known as biofilms, which are most often composed of multiple microbial species. We have been employing in vitro assays to study environmental parameters that might influence biofilm formation in the Medicago symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. These parameters include carbon source, amount of nitrate, phosphate, calcium and magnesium as well as the effects of osmolarity and pH. The microtiter plate assay facilitates the detection of subtle differences in rhizobial biofilms in response to these parameters, thereby providing insight into how environmental stress or nutritional status influences rhizobial survival. Nutrients such as sucrose, phosphate and calcium enhance biofilm formation as their concentrations increase, whereas extreme temperatures and pH negatively affect biofilm formation.Fil: Rinaudi, Luciana Veronica. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; ArgentinaFil: Fujishige, Nancy A.. University of California; Estados UnidosFil: Hirsch, Ann M.. University of California; Estados UnidosFil: Banchio, Erika. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; ArgentinaFil: Zorreguieta, Ángeles. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires. Fundación Instituto Leloir. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Giordano, Walter Fabian. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; Argentin

    European Society of Paediatric Radiology 2019 strategic research agenda: improving imaging for tomorrow’s children

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    The European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) research committee was established to initiate, drive forward and foster excellence in paediatric imaging, paediatric image-guided intervention and radiation protection research, by facilitating more evidence-based standards, protocols and multi-institutional collaborations. The ESPR Strategic Research Agenda outlines our current research approach, highlighting several areas of paediatric imaging where the society can help guide current and future research, and emphasizing those areas where early research (“seed”) funding may need to be allocated by this and other societies as precursors to larger grant applications. The key aims are to evaluate normal variation in order to be able to confidently diagnose disease states, develop robust image-based classification systems to aid diagnosis and treatment monitoring, and help develop evidence-based clinical guidelines using current literature and experience to identify knowledge gaps. For this reason, the development of evidence-based imaging pipelines, broken down step-by-step to include diagnosis, classification and clinical effectiveness, should be the end goal for each disease entity for each affected child. Here, we outline the 2019 ESPR Strategic Research Agenda along three points in the clinical imaging pipeline: clinical referral, disease diagnosis and evolution, and clinical therapeutic evaluation and effectiveness. Through multicentre trials, using existing high-level experience and expertise, and nurturing the next generation of researchers, we will be able to achieve these aims.publishedVersio

    So Different, yet So Similar: Meta-Analysis and Policy Modeling of Willingness to Participate in Clinical Trials among Brazilians and Indians

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    BACKGROUND: With the global expansion of clinical trials and the expectations of the rise of the emerging economies known as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China), the understanding of factors that affect the willingness to participate in clinical trials of patients from those countries assumes a central role in the future of health research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA) of willingness to participate in clinical trials among Brazilian patients and then we compared it with Indian patients (with results of another SRMA previously conducted by our group) through a system dynamics model. RESULTS: Five studies were included in the SRMA of Brazilian patients. Our main findings are 1) the major motivation for Brazilian patients to participate in clinical trials is altruism, 2) monetary reimbursement is the least important factor motivating Brazilian patients, 3) the major barrier for Brazilian patients to not participate in clinical trials is the fear of side effects, and 4) Brazilian patients are more likely willing to participate in clinical trials than Indians. CONCLUSION: Our study provides important insights for investigators and sponsors for planning trials in Brazil (and India) in the future. Ignoring these results may lead to unnecessary fund/time spending. More studies are needed to validate our results and for better understanding of this poorly studied theme

    Reappraisal of Morphological Differences between Renal Medullary Carcinoma, Collecting Duct Carcinoma, and Fumarate Hydratase-Deficient Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Renal medullary carcinomas (RMCs) and collecting duct carcinomas (CDCs) are rare subsets of lethal high-stage, high-grade distal nephron-related adenocarcinomas with a predilection for the renal medullary region. Recent findings have established an emerging group of fumarate hydratase (FH)-deficient tumors related to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC-RCCs) syndrome within this morphologic spectrum. Recently developed, reliable ancillary testing has enabled consistent separation between these tumor types. Here, we present the clinicopathologic features and differences in the morphologic patterns between RMC, CDC, and FH-deficient RCC in consequence of these recent developments. This study included a total of 100 cases classified using contemporary criteria and ancillary tests. Thirty-three RMCs (SMARCB1/INI1-deficient, hemoglobinopathy), 38 CDCs (SMARCB1/INI1-retained), and 29 RCCs defined by the FH-deficient phenotype (FH/2SC or FH/2SC with FH mutation, regardless of HLRCC syndromic stigmata/history) were selected. The spectrum of morphologic patterns was critically evaluated, and the differences between the morphologic patterns present in the 3 groups were analyzed statistically. Twenty-five percent of cases initially diagnosed as CDC were reclassified as FH-deficient RCC on the basis of our contemporary diagnostic approach. Among the different overlapping morphologic patterns, sieve-like/cribriform and reticular/yolk sac tumor-like patterns favored RMCs, whereas intracystic papillary and tubulocystic patterns favored FH-deficient RCC. The tubulopapillary pattern favored both CDCs and FH-deficient RCCs, and the multinodular infiltrating papillary pattern favored CDCs. Infiltrating glandular and solid sheets/cords/nested patterns were not statistically different among the 3 groups. Viral inclusion-like macronucleoli, considered as a hallmark of HLRCC-RCCs, were observed significantly more frequently in FH-deficient RCCs. Despite the overlapping morphology found among these clinically aggressive infiltrating high-grade adenocarcinomas of the kidney, reproducible differences in morphology emerged between these categories after rigorous characterization. Finally, we recommend that definitive diagnosis of CDC should only be made if RMC and FH-deficient RCC are excluded

    ATLANTIC-PRIMATES: a dataset of communities and occurrences of primates in the Atlantic Forests of South America

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    Primates play an important role in ecosystem functioning and offer critical insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and emerging infectious diseases. There are 26 primate species in the Atlantic Forests of South America, 19 of them endemic. We compiled a dataset of 5,472 georeferenced locations of 26 native and 1 introduced primate species, as hybrids in the genera Callithrix and Alouatta. The dataset includes 700 primate communities, 8,121 single species occurrences and 714 estimates of primate population sizes, covering most natural forest types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina and some other biomes. On average, primate communities of the Atlantic Forest harbor 2 ± 1 species (range = 1–6). However, about 40% of primate communities contain only one species. Alouatta guariba (N = 2,188 records) and Sapajus nigritus (N = 1,127) were the species with the most records. Callicebus barbarabrownae (N = 35), Leontopithecus caissara (N = 38), and Sapajus libidinosus (N = 41) were the species with the least records. Recorded primate densities varied from 0.004 individuals/km 2 (Alouatta guariba at Fragmento do Bugre, Paraná, Brazil) to 400 individuals/km 2 (Alouatta caraya in Santiago, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Our dataset reflects disparity between the numerous primate census conducted in the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to the scarcity of estimates of population sizes and densities. With these data, researchers can develop different macroecological and regional level studies, focusing on communities, populations, species co-occurrence and distribution patterns. Moreover, the data can also be used to assess the consequences of fragmentation, defaunation, and disease outbreaks on different ecological processes, such as trophic cascades, species invasion or extinction, and community dynamics. There are no copyright restrictions. Please cite this Data Paper when the data are used in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using the data. © 2018 by the The Authors. Ecology © 2018 The Ecological Society of Americ
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