161 research outputs found

    Peptide microarray-based characterization of antibody responses to host proteins after bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination

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    BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is the world’s most widely distributed vaccine, used against tuberculosis (TB), in cancer immunotherapy, and in autoimmune diseases due to its immunomodulatory properties. To date, the effect of BCG vaccination on antibody responses to host proteins has not been reported. High-content peptide microarrays (HCPM) offer a unique opportunity to gauge specific humoral immune responses. METHODS: The sera of BCG-vaccinated healthy adults were tested on a human HCPM platform (4953 randomly selected epitopes of human proteins) to detect specific immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) responses. Samples were obtained at 56, 112, and 252 days after vaccination. Immunohistology was performed on lymph node tissue from patients with TB lymphadenitis. Results were analysed with a combination of existing and novel statistical methods. RESULTS: IgG recognition of host peptides exhibited a peak at day 56 post BCG vaccination in all study subjects tested, which diminished over time. Primarily, IgG responses exhibited increased reactivity to ion transporters (sodium, calcium channels), cytokine receptors (interleukin 2 receptor β (IL2Rβ), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1)), other cell surface receptors (inositol, somatostatin, angiopoeitin), ribonucleoprotein, and enzymes (tyrosine kinases, phospholipase) on day 56. There was decreased IgG reactivity to transforming growth factor-beta type 1 receptor (TGFβR1) and, in agreement with the peptide microarray findings, immunohistochemical analysis of TB-infected lymph node samples revealed an overexpression of TGFβR in granulomatous lesions. Moreover, the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) showed increased reactivity on days 112 and 252, but not on day 56 post-vaccination. IgG to interleukin 4 receptor (IL4R) showed increased reactivity at 112 days post-vaccination, while IgG to IL2Rβ and FGFR1 showed decreased reactivity on days 112 and 252 as compared to day 56 post BCG vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccination modifies the host’s immune landscape after 56 days, but this imprint changes over time. This may influence the establishment of immunological memory in BCG-vaccinated individuals

    Ion backflow studies with a triple GEM detector

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    P-rex1 cooperates with PDGFRβ to drive cellular migration in 3D microenvironments

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    Expression of the Rac-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RacGEF), P-Rex1 is a key determinant of progression to metastasis in a number of human cancers. In accordance with this proposed role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, we find that ectopic expression of P-Rex1 in an immortalised human fibroblast cell line is sufficient to drive multiple migratory and invasive phenotypes. The invasive phenotype is greatly enhanced by the presence of a gradient of serum or platelet-derived growth factor, and is dependent upon the expression of functional PDGF receptor β. Consistently, the invasiveness of WM852 melanoma cells, which endogenously express P-Rex1 and PDGFRβ, is opposed by siRNA of either of these proteins. Furthermore, the current model of P-Rex1 activation is advanced through demonstration of P-Rex1 and PDGFRβ as components of the same macromolecular complex. These data suggest that P-Rex1 has an influence on physiological migratory processes, such as invasion of cancer cells, both through effects upon classical Rac1-driven motility and a novel association with RTK signalling complexes

    LRP1 Regulates Architecture of the Vascular Wall by Controlling PDGFRβ-Dependent Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Activation

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    Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) protects against atherosclerosis by regulating the activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Activated PDGFRbeta undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequently interacts with various signaling molecules, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which binds to the phosphorylated tyrosine 739/750 residues in mice, and thus regulates actin polymerization and cell movement.In this study, we found disorganized actin in the form of membrane ruffling and enhanced cell migration in LRP1-deficient (LRP1-/-) SMCs. Marfan syndrome-like phenotypes such as tortuous aortas, disrupted elastic layers and abnormally activated transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling are present in smooth muscle-specific LRP1 knockout (smLRP1-/-) mice. To investigate the role of LRP1-regulated PI3K activation by PDGFRbeta in atherogenesis, we generated a strain of smLRP1-/- mice in which tyrosine 739/750 of the PDGFRbeta had been mutated to phenylalanines (PDGFRbeta F2/F2). Spontaneous atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in the absence of hypercholesterolemia in these mice compared to smLRP1-/- animals that express wild type PDGFR. Normal actin organization was restored and spontaneous SMC migration as well as PDGF-BB-induced chemotaxis was dramatically reduced, despite continued overactivation of TGFbeta signaling, as indicated by high levels of nuclear phospho-Smad2.Our data suggest that LRP1 regulates actin organization and cell migration by controlling PDGFRbeta-dependent activation of PI3K. TGFbeta activation alone is not sufficient for the expression of the Marfan-like vascular phenotype. Thus, regulation of PI3 Kinase by PDGFRbeta is essential for maintaining vascular integrity, and for the prevention of atherosclerosis as well as Marfan syndrome

    Multicentre phase II studies evaluating imatinib plus hydroxyurea in patients with progressive glioblastoma

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    Contains fulltext : 79699.pdf (publisher's version ) (Closed access)BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy of imatinib mesylate in addition to hydroxyurea in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) who were either on or not on enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs (EIAEDs). METHODS: A total of 231 patients with GBM at first recurrence from 21 institutions in 10 countries were enrolled. All patients received 500 mg of hydroxyurea twice a day. Imatinib was administered at 600 mg per day for patients not on EIAEDs and at 500 mg twice a day if on EIAEDs. The primary end point was radiographic response rate and secondary end points were safety, progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The radiographic response rate after centralised review was 3.4%. Progression-free survival at 6 months and median OS were 10.6% and 26.0 weeks, respectively. Outcome did not appear to differ based on EIAED status. The most common grade 3 or greater adverse events were fatigue (7%), neutropaenia (7%), and thrombocytopaenia (7%). CONCLUSIONS: Imatinib in addition to hydroxyurea was well tolerated among patients with recurrent GBM but did not show clinically meaningful anti-tumour activity

    Time-series clustering of gene expression in irradiated and bystander fibroblasts: an application of FBPA clustering

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The radiation bystander effect is an important component of the overall biological response of tissues and organisms to ionizing radiation, but the signaling mechanisms between irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells are not fully understood. In this study, we measured a time-series of gene expression after α-particle irradiation and applied the Feature Based Partitioning around medoids Algorithm (FBPA), a new clustering method suitable for sparse time series, to identify signaling modules that act in concert in the response to direct irradiation and bystander signaling. We compared our results with those of an alternate clustering method, Short Time series Expression Miner (STEM).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>While computational evaluations of both clustering results were similar, FBPA provided more biological insight. After irradiation, gene clusters were enriched for signal transduction, cell cycle/cell death and inflammation/immunity processes; but only FBPA separated clusters by function. In bystanders, gene clusters were enriched for cell communication/motility, signal transduction and inflammation processes; but biological functions did not separate as clearly with either clustering method as they did in irradiated samples. Network analysis confirmed p53 and NF-κB transcription factor-regulated gene clusters in irradiated and bystander cells and suggested novel regulators, such as KDM5B/JARID1B (lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B) and HDACs (histone deacetylases), which could epigenetically coordinate gene expression after irradiation.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>In this study, we have shown that a new time series clustering method, FBPA, can provide new leads to the mechanisms regulating the dynamic cellular response to radiation. The findings implicate epigenetic control of gene expression in addition to transcription factor networks.</p

    Blood vessels as targets in tumor therapy

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    The landmark papers published by Judah Folkman in the early 1970s on tumor angiogenesis and therapeutic implications promoted the rapid development of a very dynamic field where basic scientists, oncologists, and pharmaceutical industry joined forces to determine the molecular mechanisms in blood vessel formation and find means to exploit this knowledge in suppressing tumor vascularization and growth. A wealth of information has been collected on angiogenic growth factors, and in 2004 the first specific blood vessel-targeted cancer therapy was introduced: a neutralizing antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Now (2011) we know that suppression of tumor angiogenesis may be a double-edged sword and that the therapy needs to be further refined and individualized. This review describes the hallmarks of tumor vessels, how different angiogenic growth factors exert their function, and the perspectives for future development of anti-angiogenic therapy

    Increased Serum and Musculotendinous Fibrogenic Proteins following Persistent Low-Grade Inflammation in a Rat Model of Long-Term Upper Extremity Overuse.

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    We examined the relationship between grip strength declines and muscle-tendon responses induced by long-term performance of a high-repetition, low-force (HRLF) reaching task in rats. We hypothesized that grip strength declines would correlate with inflammation, fibrosis and degradation in flexor digitorum muscles and tendons. Grip strength declined after training, and further in weeks 18 and 24, in reach limbs of HRLF rats. Flexor digitorum tissues of reach limbs showed low-grade increases in inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β after training and in week 18, IL-1α in week 18, TNF-α and IL-6 after training and in week 24, and IL-10 in week 24, with greater increases in tendons than muscles. Similar cytokine increases were detected in serum with HRLF: IL-1α and IL-10 in week 18, and TNF-α and IL-6 in week 24. Grip strength correlated inversely with IL-6 in muscles, tendons and serum, and TNF-α in muscles and serum. Four fibrogenic proteins, TGFB1, CTGF, PDGFab and PDGFbb, and hydroxyproline, a marker of collagen synthesis, increased in serum in HRLF weeks 18 or 24, concomitant with epitendon thickening, increased muscle and tendon TGFB1 and CTGF. A collagenolytic gelatinase, MMP2, increased by week 18 in serum, tendons and muscles of HRLF rats. Grip strength correlated inversely with TGFB1 in muscles, tendons and serum; with CTGF-immunoreactive fibroblasts in tendons; and with MMP2 in tendons and serum. Thus, motor declines correlated with low-grade systemic and musculotendinous inflammation throughout task performance, and increased fibrogenic and degradative proteins with prolonged task performance. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, TGFB1, CTGF and MMP2 may serve as serum biomarkers of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, although further studies in humans are needed

    Feebly Interacting Particles: FIPs 2022 workshop report

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    Particle physics today faces the challenge of explaining the mystery of dark matter, the origin of matter over anti-matter in the Universe, the origin of the neutrino masses, the apparent fine-tuning of the electro-weak scale, and many other aspects of fundamental physics. Perhaps the most striking frontier to emerge in the search for answers involves new physics at mass scales comparable to familiar matter, below the GeV-scale, or even radically below, down to sub-eV scales, and with very feeble interaction strength. New theoretical ideas to address dark matter and other fundamental questions predict such feebly interacting particles (FIPs) at these scales, and indeed, existing data provide numerous hints for such possibility. A vibrant experimental program to discover such physics is under way, guided by a systematic theoretical approach firmly grounded on the underlying principles of the Standard Model. This document represents the report of the FIPs 2022 workshop, held at CERN between the 17 and 21 October 2022 and aims to give an overview of these efforts, their motivations, and the decadal goals that animate the community involved in the search for FIPs

    Bioinorganic Chemistry of Alzheimer’s Disease

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