1,207 research outputs found

    ManyBabies 3: A multi-lab study of infant algebraic rule learning

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    The ability to learn and apply rules lies at the heart of cognition. In a seminal study, Marcus, Vijayan, Rao, and Vishton (1999) reported that seven-month-old infants learned abstract rules over syllable sequences and were able to generalize those rules to novel syllable sequences. Dozens of studies have since extended on that research using different rules, modalities, stimuli, participants (human adults and non-human animals) and experimental procedures. Yet questions remain about the robustness of Marcus et al.’s (1999) core findings, as the presence of significant learning effects has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to address this issue by testing XX infants of a wide age range (5;0-12;0 months) in a multi-laboratory (XX laboratories) replication of the Marcus et al. (1999) study

    Therapeutic androgen receptor ligands

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    In the past several years, the concept of tissue-selective nuclear receptor ligands has emerged. This concept has come to fruition with estrogens, with the successful marketing of drugs such as raloxifene. The discovery of raloxifene and other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has raised the possibility of generating selective compounds for other pathways, including androgens (that is, selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs)

    The extraordinarily bright optical afterglow of GRB 991208 and its host galaxy

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    Observations of the extraordinarily bright optical afterglow (OA) of GRB 991208 started 2.1 d after the event. The flux decay constant of the OA in the R-band is -2.30 +/- 0.07 up to 5 d, which is very likely due to the jet effect, and after that it is followed by a much steeper decay with constant -3.2 +/- 0.2, the fastest one ever seen in a GRB OA. A negative detection in several all-sky films taken simultaneously to the event implies either a previous additional break prior to 2 d after the occurrence of the GRB (as expected from the jet effect). The existence of a second break might indicate a steepening in the electron spectrum or the superposition of two events. Once the afterglow emission vanished, contribution of a bright underlying SN is found, but the light curve is not sufficiently well sampled to rule out a dust echo explanation. Our determination of z = 0.706 indicates that GRB 991208 is at 3.7 Gpc, implying an isotropic energy release of 1.15 x 10E53 erg which may be relaxed by beaming by a factor > 100. Precise astrometry indicates that the GRB coincides within 0.2" with the host galaxy, thus given support to a massive star origin. The absolute magnitude is M_B = -18.2, well below the knee of the galaxy luminosity function and we derive a star-forming rate of 11.5 +/- 7.1 Mo/yr. The quasi-simultaneous broad-band photometric spectral energy distribution of the afterglow is determined 3.5 day after the burst (Dec 12.0) implying a cooling frequency below the optical band, i.e. supporting a jet model with p = -2.30 as the index of the power-law electron distribution.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 9 pages, 6 figures (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 have been updated

    Role of TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion in Negative Regulation of PSMA Expression

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    Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP), and its expression is negatively regulated by androgen stimulation. However, it is still unclear which factors are involved in this downregulation. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is the most common known gene rearrangement in prostate carcinoma. Androgen stimulation can increase expression of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in fusion positive prostate cancer cells. The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether PSMA expression can be regulated by the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. We employed two PSMA positive cell lines: VCaP cells, which harbor TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, and LNCaP cells, which lack the fusion. After 24 hours of androgen treatment, TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA level was increased in VCaP cells. PSMA mRNA level was dramatically decreased in VCaP cells, while it only has moderate change in LNCaP cells. Treatment with the androgen antagonist flutamide partially restored PSMA expression in androgen-treated VCaP cells. Knocking down ERG by siRNA in VCaP cells enhances PSMA expression both in the presence and absence of synthetic androgen R1881. Overexpressing TMPRSS2-ERG fusions in LNCaP cells downregulated PSMA both in the presence or absence of R1881, while overexpressing wild type ERG did not. Using PSMA-based luciferase reporter assays, we found TMPRSS2-ERG fusion can inhibit PSMA activity at the transcriptional level. Our data indicated that downregulation of PSMA in androgen-treated VCaP cells appears partially mediated by TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion

    Anti-oncogenic and pro-differentiation effects of clorgyline, a monoamine oxidase A inhibitor, on high grade prostate cancer cells

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamines including neurotransmitters, is highly expressed in basal cells of the normal human prostatic epithelium and in poorly differentiated (Gleason grades 4 and 5), aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Clorgyline, an MAO-A inhibitor, induces secretory differentiation of normal prostate cells. We examined the effects of clorgyline on the transcriptional program of epithelial cells cultured from high grade PCa (E-CA).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We systematically assessed gene expression changes induced by clorgyline in E-CA cells using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes differentially expressed in treated and control cells were identified by Significance Analysis of Microarrays. Expression of genes of interest was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The expression of 156 genes was significantly increased by clorgyline at all time points over the time course of 6 – 96 hr identified by Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). The list is enriched with genes repressed in 7 of 12 oncogenic pathway signatures compiled from the literature. In addition, genes downregulated ≥ 2-fold by clorgyline were significantly enriched with those upregulated by key oncogenes including beta-catenin and ERBB2, indicating an anti-oncogenic effect of clorgyline. Another striking effect of clorgyline was the induction of androgen receptor (AR) and classic AR target genes such as prostate-specific antigen together with other secretory epithelial cell-specific genes, suggesting that clorgyline promotes differentiation of cancer cells. Moreover, clorgyline downregulated EZH2, a critical component of the Polycomb Group (PcG) complex that represses the expression of differentiation-related genes. Indeed, many genes in the PcG repression signature that predicts PCa outcome were upregulated by clorgyline, suggesting that the differentiation-promoting effect of clorgyline may be mediated by its downregulation of EZH2.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our results suggest that inhibitors of MAO-A, already in clinical use to treat depression, may have potential application as therapeutic PCa drugs by inhibiting oncogenic pathway activity and promoting differentiation.</p

    ZMIZ1 Preferably Enhances the Transcriptional Activity of Androgen Receptor with Short Polyglutamine Tract

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    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-induced transcription factor and contains the polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts within its N-terminal transactivation domain. The length of polyQ tracts has been suggested to alter AR transcriptional activity in prostate cancer along with other endocrine and neurologic disorders. Here, we assessed the role of ZMIZ1, an AR co-activator, in regulating the activity of the AR with different lengths of polyQ tracts as ARQ9, ARQ24, and ARQ35 in prostate cancer cells. ZMIZ1, but not ZMIZ2 or ARA70, preferably augments ARQ9 induced androgen-dependent transcription on three different androgen-inducible promoter/reporter vectors. A strong protein-protein interaction between ZMIZ1 and ARQ9 proteins was shown by immunoprecipitation assays. In the presence of ZMIZ1, the N and C-terminal interaction of the ARQ9 was more pronounced than ARQ24 and ARQ35. Both Brg1 and BAF57, the components of SWI/SNF complexes, were shown to be involved in the enhancement of ZMIZ1 on AR activity. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP), we further demonstrated a strong recruitment of ZMIZ1 by ARQ9 on the promoter of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene. These results demonstrate a novel regulatory role of ZMIZ1 in modulating the polyQ tract length of AR in prostate cancer cells

    Core Site-Moiety Maps Reveal Inhibitors and Binding Mechanisms of Orthologous Proteins by Screening Compound Libraries

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    Members of protein families often share conserved structural subsites for interaction with chemically similar moieties despite low sequence identity. We propose a core site-moiety map of multiple proteins (called CoreSiMMap) to discover inhibitors and mechanisms by profiling subsite-moiety interactions of immense screening compounds. The consensus anchor, the subsite-moiety interactions with statistical significance, of a CoreSiMMap can be regarded as a “hot spot” that represents the conserved binding environments involved in biological functions. Here, we derive the CoreSiMMap with six consensus anchors and identify six inhibitors (IC50<8.0 µM) of shikimate kinases (SKs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori from the NCI database (236,962 compounds). Studies of site-directed mutagenesis and analogues reveal that these conserved interacting residues and moieties contribute to pocket-moiety interaction spots and biological functions. These results reveal that our multi-target screening strategy and the CoreSiMMap can increase the accuracy of screening in the identification of novel inhibitors and subsite-moiety environments for elucidating the binding mechanisms of targets

    Architectures of control in consumer product design

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    Copyright @ 2005 Social Services Research GroupThe idea of architectures of control is introduced through examples ranging from urban planning to digital rights management, and the intentions behind their use in consumer products are examined, with reference to case studies of printer cartridges and proposed 'optimum lifetime products.' The reactions of the technical community and consumers themselves are also explored, along with some wider implications for society
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