770 research outputs found

    “Forty-Seven Days: How Pershing’s Warriors Came of Age to Defeat the German Army in World War I (Book Review)” by Mitchell Yockelson

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    Review of Forty-Seven Days: How Pershing’s Warriors Came of Age to Defeat the German Army in World War I by Mitchell Yockelso

    The linked survival prospects of siblings : evidence for the Indian states

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    This paper reports an analysis of micro-data for India that shows a high correlation in infant mortality among siblings. In 13 of 15 states, we identify a causal effect of infant death on the risk of infant death of the subsequent sibling (a scarring effect), after controlling for mother-level heterogeneity. The scarring effects are large, the only other covariate with a similarly large effect being mother’s (secondary or higher) education. The two states in which evidence of scarring is weak are Punjab, the richest, and Kerala, the socially most progressive. The size of the scarring effect depends upon the sex of the previous child in three states, in a direction consistent with son-preference. Evidence of scarring implies that policies targeted at reducing infant mortality will have social multiplier effects by helping avoid the death of subsequent siblings. Comparison of other covariate effects across the states offers some interesting new insights

    The Fueling of Nuclear Activity: II. The Bar Properties of Seyfert and Normal Galaxies

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    We use a recent near-infrared imaging survey of samples of Seyfert and normal galaxies to study the role of bars in the fueling of nuclear activity. The active galaxy sample includes Seyfert galaxies in the Revised Shapely-Ames (RSA) and Sandage & Tammann's (1987) extension to this catalog. The normal galaxies were selected to match the Seyfert sample in Hubble type, redshift, inclination and blue luminosity. All the galaxies in both samples classified as barred in the RSA catalog are also barred in the near-infrared. In addition, ~55% of the galaxies classified as non-barred in the RSA show evidence for bars at 2.1 microns. Overall, ~70% of the galaxies observed show evidence for bar structures. The incidence of bars in the Seyfert and normal galaxies is similar, suggesting Seyfert nuclei do not occur preferentially in barred systems. Furthermore, a slightly higher percentage of normal galaxies have multiple-bar structures.Comment: aastex 4.0, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letter

    X-Ray Lithography of Metal and Semiconductor Nanoparticles

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    In the last few years, a considerable amount of research has focused on the three-dimensional fabrication of contacts and electronic devices. Most techniques, however, are essentially based on photoreduction, and are limited to noble- and semi-noble metals. We present here a general method that allows patterning of porous matrices in 3D with metal, but also with semiconductor nanoparticles which is of potential relevance for microfabrication applications. In our method, the pore-filling solvent of a sol-gel material is exchanged with a solution of precursors. The precursors are photodissociated and nanoparticles are formed when the monoliths are irradiated. In a series of previous publications we showed that noble metals but also semiconductor quantum dots can be produced with our technique. Here we focus on the Xray variation of our technique and show that monoliths can be patterned with metals and also with semiconductor nanoparticles. The patterns have the same resolution than the masks, i.e., around 10 μm, and extend into the bulk of the monoliths for up to a depth of 12 mm. Our method possesses several attractive features. Sample preparation is very simple; the technique has a bottom-up character; it allows access to a wide number of materials, such as noble metals and II-VI semiconductor materials; and it has a 3D character. With additional developments, our technique could be possibly used to complement more established techniques such as LIGA and multiphoton fabrication techniques which are currently used for 3D microfabrication

    WFPC2 Observations of Compact Star Cluster Nuclei in Low Luminosity Spiral Galaxies

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    We have used the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope to image the compact star cluster nuclei of the nearby, late-type, low-luminosity spiral galaxies NGC 4395, NGC 4242, and ESO 359-029. We also analyze archival WFPC2 observations of the compact star cluster nucleus of M33. A comparative analysis of the structural and photometric properties of these four nuclei is presented. All of the nuclei are very compact, with luminosity densities increasing at small radii to the resolution limit of our data. NGC 4395 contains a Seyfert 1 nucleus with a distinct bipolar structure and bright associated filaments which are likely due to [OIII] emission. The M33 nucleus has a complex structure, with elongated isophotes and possible signatures of weak activity, including a jet-like component. The other two nuclei are not known to be active, but share similar physical size scales and luminosities to the M33 and NGC 4395 nuclei. The circumnuclear environments of all four of our program galaxies are extremely diffuse, have only low-to-moderate star formation, and appear to be devoid of large quantities of dust. The central gravitational potentials of the galaxies are also quite shallow, making the origin of these types of `naked' nuclei problematic.Comment: to appear in the July 1999 Astronomical Journal; 38 pages (Latex), 5 tables (postscript), 21 figures (gif); postscript versions of the figures may be obtained via anonymous ftp at ftp://ftp.cv.nrao.edu/NRAO-staff/lmatthew/lanl-nucle

    Interpreting high [O III]/H β ratios with maturing starbursts

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    Star-forming galaxies at high redshift show ubiquitously high-ionization parameters, as measured by the ratio of optical emission lines. We demonstrate that local (z < 0.2) sources selected as Lyman break analogues also manifest high line ratios with a typical [O III]/Hβ=3.36+0.14−0.04 – comparable to all but the highest ratios seen in star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2–4. We argue that the stellar population synthesis code BPASS can explain the high-ionization parameters required through the ageing of rapidly formed star populations, without invoking any AGN contribution. Binary stellar evolution pathways prolong the age interval over which a starburst is likely to show elevated line ratios, relative to those predicted by single stellar evolution codes. As a result, model galaxies at near-solar metallicities and with ages of up to ∼100 Myr after a starburst typically have a line ratio [O III]/Hβ ∼ 3, consistent with those seen in Lyman break galaxies and local sources with similar star formation densities. This emphasises the importance of including binary evolution pathways when simulating the nebular line emission of young or bursty stellar populations

    The M81 Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy DDO 165. II. Connecting Recent Star Formation with ISM Structures and Kinematics

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    We compare the stellar populations and complex neutral gas dynamics of the M81 group dIrr galaxy DDO 165 using data from the HST and the VLA. Paper I identified two kinematically distinct HI components, multiple localized high velocity gas features, and eight HI holes and shells (the largest of which spans ~2.2x1.1 kpc). Using the spatial and temporal information from the stellar populations in DDO 165, we compare the patterns of star formation over the past 500 Myr with the HI dynamics. We extract localized star formation histories within 6 of the 8 HI holes identified in Paper I, as well as 23 other regions that sample a range of stellar densities and neutral gas properties. From population synthesis modeling, we derive the energy outputs (from stellar winds and supernovae) of the stellar populations within these regions over the last 100 Myr, and compare with refined estimates of the energies required to create the HI holes. In all cases, we find that "feedback" is energetically capable of creating the observed structures in the ISM. Numerous regions with significant energy inputs from feedback lack coherent HI structures but show prominent localized high velocity gas features; this feedback signature is a natural product of temporally and spatially distributed star formation. In DDO 165, the extended period of heightened star formation activity (lasting more than 1 Gyr) is energetically capable of creating the observed holes and high velocity gas features in the neutral ISM.Comment: The Astrophysical Journal, in press. Full-resolution version available on request from the first autho

    The M81 Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy DDO 165. I. High Velocity Neutral Gas in a Post-Starburst System

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    We present new multi-configuration VLA HI spectral line observations of the M81 group dIrr post-starburst galaxy DDO 165. The HI morphology is complex, with multiple column density peaks surrounding a large region of very low HI surface density that is offset from the center of the stellar distribution. The bulk of the neutral gas is associated with the southern section of the galaxy; a secondary peak in the north contains ~15% of the total HI mass. These components appear to be kinematically distinct, suggesting that either tidal processes or large-scale blowout have recently shaped the ISM of DDO 165. Using spatially-resolved position-velocity maps, we find multiple localized high-velocity gas features. Cross-correlating with radius-velocity analyses, we identify eight shell/hole structures in the ISM with a range of sizes (~400-900 pc) and expansion velocities (~7-11 km/s). These structures are compared with narrow- and broad-band imaging from KPNO and HST. Using the latter data, recent works have shown that DDO 165's previous "burst" phase was extended temporally (>1 Gyr). We thus interpret the high-velocity gas features, HI holes, and kinematically distinct components of the galaxy in the context of the immediate effects of "feedback" from recent star formation. In addition to creating HI holes and shells, extended star formation events are capable of creating localized high velocity motion of the surrounding interstellar material. A companion paper connects the energetics from the HI and HST data.Comment: The Astrophysical Journal, in press. Full-resolution version available on request from the first autho

    Five High-Redshift Quasars Discovered in Commissioning Imaging Data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

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    We report the discovery of five quasars with redshifts of 4.67 - 5.27 and z'-band magnitudes of 19.5-20.7 M_B ~ -27. All were originally selected as distant quasar candidates in optical/near-infrared photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and most were confirmed as probable high-redshift quasars by supplementing the SDSS data with J and K measurements. The quasars possess strong, broad Lyman-alpha emission lines, with the characteristic sharp cutoff on the blue side produced by Lyman-alpha forest absorption. Three quasars contain strong, broad absorption features, and one of them exhibits very strong N V emission. The amount of absorption produced by the Lyman-alpha forest increases toward higher redshift, and that in the z=5.27 object (D_A ~ 0.7) is consistent with a smooth extrapolation of the absorption seen in lower redshift quasars. The high luminosity of these objects relative to most other known objects at z >~ 5 makes them potentially valuable as probes of early quasar properties and of the intervening intergalactic medium.Comment: 13 pages in LaTex format, two postscirpt figures. Submitted to the Astronomical Journa
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