2,140 research outputs found

    Performance evaluation of the Boron Coated Straws detector with Geant4

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    The last decade has witnessed the development of several alternative neutron detector technologies, as a consequence of upcoming neutron sources and upgrades, as well the world-wide shortage of 3^3He. One branch of development is the family of 10^{10}B-based gaseous detectors. This work focuses on the boron coated straws (BCS) by Proportional Technologies Inc., a commercial solution designed for use in homeland security and neutron science. A detailed Geant4 simulation study of the BCS is presented, which investigates various aspects of the detector performance, e.g. efficiency, activation, absorption and the impact of scattering on the measured signal. The suitability of the BCS detector for Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), direct chopper spectrometry and imaging is discussed.Comment: 50 pages, 37 figures, minor changes after review, results unchange

    Recommended Locations of Beam Loss Monitors for the ATLAS Roman Pots

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    This note suggests suitable locations to position beam loss monitors to observe losses on the ATLAS Roman Pot station located close to 240m from IP1. This monitoring is envisaged to help to avoid quenches of the super- conducting magnets downstream of the roman pots and to avert damage to either the LHC machine elements or the roman pot detectors. The results presented in this note indicate the locations where the BLMs should be installed. The recommended locations are determined using previous simulation results on BLM response to losses; therefore these results should be considered in conjunction with the previous results. A more detailed note on the topic will follow later

    Recommended Locations of Beam Loss Monitors for the TOTEM Roman Pots

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    This note presents results from simulations of losses on the TOTEM Roman Pot stations located close to 150m and 220m from IP5. These results are used to evaluate suitable locations to position beam loss monitors to monitor these losses, and help to avoid quenches of the super-conducting magnets downstream of the roman pots. The results presented in this note indicate the locations where the BLMs should be installed. A more detailed note on the topic will follow later

    A 10B-based neutron detector with stacked Multiwire Proportional Counters and macrostructured cathodes

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    We present the results of the measurements of the detection efficiency for a 4.7 \r{A} neutron beam incident upon a detector incorporating a stack of up to five MultiWire Proportional Counters (MWPC) with Boron-coated cathodes. The cathodes were made of Aluminum and had a surface exhibiting millimeter-deep V-shaped grooves of 45{\deg}, upon which the thin Boron film was deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. The incident neutrons interacting with the converter layer deposited on the sidewalls of the grooves have a higher capture probability, owing to the larger effective absorption film thickness. This leads to a higher overall detection efficiency for the grooved cathode when compared to a cathode with a flat surface. Both the experimental results and the predictions of the GEANT4 model suggests that a 5-counter detector stack with coated grooved cathodes has the same efficiency as a 7-counter stack with flat cathodes. The reduction in the number of counters in the stack without altering the detection efficiency will prove highly beneficial for large-area position-sensitive detectors for neutron scattering applications, for which the cost-effective manufacturing of the detector and associated readout electronics is an important objective. The proposed detector concept could be a technological option for one of the new chopper spectrometers and other instruments planned to be built at the future European Spallation Source in Sweden. These results with macrostructured cathodes generally apply not just to MWPCs but to other gaseous detectors as well.Comment: 14 pages, 9 figure

    Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

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    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.Comment: 2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference with the 21st Symposium on Room-Temperature Semiconductor X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors, 4 pages, 8 figure

    A First Comparison of the responses of a He4-based fast-neutron detector and a NE-213 liquid-scintillator reference detector

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    A first comparison has been made between the pulse-shape discrimination characteristics of a novel 4^{4}He-based pressurized scintillation detector and a NE-213 liquid-scintillator reference detector using an Am/Be mixed-field neutron and gamma-ray source and a high-resolution scintillation-pulse digitizer. In particular, the capabilities of the two fast neutron detectors to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays were investigated. The NE-213 liquid-scintillator reference cell produced a wide range of scintillation-light yields in response to the gamma-ray field of the source. In stark contrast, due to the size and pressure of the 4^{4}He gas volume, the 4^{4}He-based detector registered a maximum scintillation-light yield of 750~keVee_{ee} to the same gamma-ray field. Pulse-shape discrimination for particles with scintillation-light yields of more than 750~keVee_{ee} was excellent in the case of the 4^{4}He-based detector. Above 750~keVee_{ee} its signal was unambiguously neutron, enabling particle identification based entirely upon the amount of scintillation light produced.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figures, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A review addresse

    Some Restrictions Abroad Affecting Corporations

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    A neutron detector concept based on solid layers of boron carbide enriched in 1 B has been in development for the last few years as an alternative for He-3 by collaboration between the ILL, ESS and Linkoping University. This Multi-Grid detector uses layers of aluminum substrates coated with (B4C)-B-10 on both sides that are traversed by the incoming neutrons. Detection is achieved using a gas counter readout principle. By segmenting the substrate and using multiple anode wires, the detector is made inherently position sensitive. This development is aimed primarily at neutron scattering instruments with large detector areas, such as time-of-flight chopper spectrometers. The most recent prototype has been built to be interchangeable with the He-3 detectors of IN6 at ILL. The 1 B detector has an active area of 32 x 48 cm(2). It was installed at the IN6 instrument and operated for several weeks, collecting data in parallel with the regularly scheduled experiments, thus providing the first side-by-side comparison with the conventional He-3 detectors. Results include an efficiency comparison, assessment of the in-detector scattering contribution, sensitivity to gamma-rays and the signal-to-noise ratio in time-of-flight spectra. The good expected performance has been confirmed with the exception of an unexpected background count rate. This has been identified as natural alpha activity in aluminum. New convertor substrates are under study to eliminate this source of background

    A simulational study of the indirect geometry neutron spectrometer, BIFROST at the European Spallation Source, from neutron source position to detector position

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    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is intended to become the most powerful spallation neutron source in the world and the flagship of neutron science in the upcoming decades. The exceptionally high neutron flux will provide unique opportunities for scientific experiments, but also set high requirements for the detectors. One of the most challenging aspects is the rate capability and in particular the peak instantaneous rate capability, i.e. the number of neutrons hitting the detector per channel or cm2^2 at the peak of the neutron pulse. The primary purpose of this paper is to estimate the incident rates that are anticipated for the BIFROST instrument planned for ESS, and also to demonstrate the use of powerful simulation tools for the correct interpretation of neutron transport in crystalline materials. A full simulation model of the instrument from source to detector position, implemented with the use of multiple simulation software packages is presented. For a single detector tube instantaneous incident rates with a maximum of 1.7 GHz for a Bragg peak from a single crystal, and 0.3 MHz for a vanadium sample are found. This paper also includes the first application of a new pyrolytic graphite model, and a comparison of different simulation tools to highlight their strengths and weaknesses.Comment: 45 pages, 20 figure

    Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene for Applications in Gaseous Detectors

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    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2x2cm2^2, grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.Comment: 4pages, 3figures, 13th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detector

    Tagging fast neutrons from an 241Am/9Be source

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    We report on an investigation of the fast-neutron spectrum emitted by 241Am/9Be. Well-understood shielding, coincidence, and time-of-flight measurement techniques are employed to produce a continuous, polychromatic, energy-tagged neutron beam.Comment: 17 pages, 7 figures, submitted to Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotope
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