136 research outputs found

    A Lightweight Content Replication Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Environments

    Full text link
    The mobile, wireless, and self-organizing features of ad hoc networks pose many challenges with respect to continuous availability and accessibility of data. In such a dynamic environment, there are many advantages in replicating a data item so there are multiple copies, including reduced response times and higher data availability. Also, if done efficiently, replication can help reduce energy usage. In this paper, we propose the Expanding Ring replication strategy for pull-based information dissemination environments. One of our primary objectives is the development of a lightweight scheme for mobile nodes. We evaluate the performance of our scheme with respect to a number of parameters and compare it to a system without replication. Our results show a reduction in the average response times and the message processing overhead on nodes. The scheme also does well when both, the overall willingness of nodes to cache data and their individual caching capabilities vary

    Calcified multilocular thymic cyst associated with thymoma: a case report

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>There are few case reports of thymoma with a thymic cyst. Such an association renders it difficult for any pathologist to differentiate from other neoplasms, such as a cystic thymoma.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>A 50-year-old Berber woman from Morocco was admitted with a chronic cough of more than 10 years duration. Her medical history and physical examination were normal. Anterior chest radiography demonstrated a calcified opacity in her right anterior mediastinum. A chest-computed tomogram revealed a round cystic tumor, with significant calcification in her right anterior mediastinum. A surgical exploration was performed. The tumor seemed to be a well-encapsulated and totally calcified lesion, arising from the right lobe of her thymus. It was removed by partial resection of her thymus. Through histology, the calcified tumor exhibited some areas of multilocular fibrous-wall cysts. These cysts were partially lined by small cuboidal cells with severe chronic inflammation and an AB thymoma that arose from the wall of the cyst.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Greater attention should be given to multilocular thymic cysts, to exclude the possibility of neoplasm, especially when the cyst wall is thickened.</p

    A serine proteinase from the sarcoplasmic fraction of red sea bream Pagrus major is possibly derived from blood

    Get PDF
    Collagen degradation is known to be involved in the post mortem tenderization of fish muscle. A serine proteinase that is assumed to be related to collagen degradation after fish death was purified from the sarcoplasmic fraction of red sea bream Pagrus major by ammonium sulfate fractionation and column chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, Q Sepharose and Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B. The enzyme hydrolyzed gelatin and was obtained as a protein band of approximately 38 kDa upon sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined for 32 residues. A protein that had the same N-terminal amino acid sequence as the enzyme for ten residues was purified from the serum of red sea bream and showed the same characteristics as the enzyme. Therefore, it is suggested that the serine proteinase migrates from the blood to muscle and degrades muscle proteins after the death of the fish

    3D Reconstruction of VZV Infected Cell Nuclei and PML Nuclear Cages by Serial Section Array Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Tomography

    Get PDF
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Like all herpesviruses, the VZV DNA genome is replicated in the nucleus and packaged into nucleocapsids that must egress across the nuclear membrane for incorporation into virus particles in the cytoplasm. Our recent work showed that VZV nucleocapsids are sequestered in nuclear cages formed from promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in vitro and in human dorsal root ganglia and skin xenografts in vivo. We sought a method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of nucleocapsids in the nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells as well as the 3D shape, volume and ultrastructure of these unique PML subnuclear domains. Here we report the development of a novel 3D imaging and reconstruction strategy that we term Serial Section Array-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSA-SEM) and its application to the analysis of VZV-infected cells and these nuclear PML cages. We show that SSA-SEM permits large volume imaging and 3D reconstruction at a resolution sufficient to localize, count and distinguish different types of VZV nucleocapsids and to visualize complete PML cages. This method allowed a quantitative determination of how many nucleocapsids can be sequestered within individual PML cages (sequestration capacity), what proportion of nucleocapsids are entrapped in single nuclei (sequestration efficiency) and revealed the ultrastructural detail of the PML cages. More than 98% of all nucleocapsids in reconstructed nuclear volumes were contained in PML cages and single PML cages sequestered up to 2,780 nucleocapsids, which were shown by electron tomography to be embedded and cross-linked by an filamentous electron-dense meshwork within these unique subnuclear domains. This SSA-SEM analysis extends our recent characterization of PML cages and provides a proof of concept for this new strategy to investigate events during virion assembly at the single cell level

    Hagfish and lamprey Hox genes reveal conservation of temporal colinearity in vertebrates

    Get PDF
    Hox genes exert fundamental roles for proper regional specification along the main rostro-caudal axis of animal embryos. They are generally expressed in restricted spatial domains according to their position in the cluster (spatial colinearity)—a feature that is conserved across bilaterians. In jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), the position in the cluster also determines the onset of expression of Hox genes (a feature known as whole-cluster temporal colinearity (WTC)), while in invertebrates this phenomenon is displayed as a subcluster-level temporal colinearity. However, little is known about the expression profile of Hox genes in jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes); therefore, the evolutionary origin of WTC, as seen in gnathostomes, remains a mystery. Here, we show that Hox genes in cyclostomes are expressed according to WTC during development. We investigated the Hox repertoire and Hox gene expression profiles in three different species—a hagfish, a lamprey and a shark—encompassing the two major groups of vertebrates, and found that these are expressed following a whole-cluster, temporally staggered pattern, indicating that WTC has been conserved during the past 500 million years despite drastically different genome evolution and morphological outputs between jawless and jawed vertebrates

    Entrapment of Viral Capsids in Nuclear PML Cages Is an Intrinsic Antiviral Host Defense against Varicella-Zoster Virus

    Get PDF
    The herpesviruses, like most other DNA viruses, replicate in the host cell nucleus. Subnuclear domains known as promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), or ND10 bodies, have been implicated in restricting early herpesviral gene expression. These viruses have evolved countermeasures to disperse PML-NBs, as shown in cells infected in vitro, but information about the fate of PML-NBs and their functions in herpesvirus infected cells in vivo is limited. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus with tropism for skin, lymphocytes and sensory ganglia, where it establishes latency. Here, we identify large PML-NBs that sequester newly assembled nucleocapsids (NC) in neurons and satellite cells of human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and skin cells infected with VZV in vivo. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopy revealed that these distinctive nuclear bodies consisted of PML fibers forming spherical cages that enclosed mature and immature VZV NCs. Of six PML isoforms, only PML IV promoted the sequestration of NCs. PML IV significantly inhibited viral infection and interacted with the ORF23 capsid surface protein, which was identified as a target for PML-mediated NC sequestration. The unique PML IV C-terminal domain was required for both capsid entrapment and antiviral activity. Similar large PML-NBs, termed clastosomes, sequester aberrant polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins, such as Huntingtin (Htt), in several neurodegenerative disorders. We found that PML IV cages co-sequester HttQ72 and ORF23 protein in VZV infected cells. Our data show that PML cages contribute to the intrinsic antiviral defense by sensing and entrapping VZV nucleocapsids, thereby preventing their nuclear egress and inhibiting formation of infectious virus particles. The efficient sequestration of virion capsids in PML cages appears to be the outcome of a basic cytoprotective function of this distinctive category of PML-NBs in sensing and safely containing nuclear aggregates of aberrant proteins

    Increased Anion Channel Activity Is an Unavoidable Event in Ozone-Induced Programmed Cell Death

    Get PDF
    Ozone is a major secondary air pollutant often reaching high concentrations in urban areas under strong daylight, high temperature and stagnant high-pressure systems. Ozone in the troposphere is a pollutant that is harmful to the plant. generation by salicylic and abscisic acids. Anion channel activation was also shown to promote the accumulation of transcripts encoding vacuolar processing enzymes, a family of proteases previously reported to contribute to the disruption of vacuole integrity observed during programmed cell death.-induced programmed cell death. Because ion channels and more specifically anion channels assume a crucial position in cells, an understanding about the underlying role(s) for ion channels in the signalling pathway leading to programmed cell death is a subject that warrants future investigation

    Testis-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: origin and evolution

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) catalyses one of the glycolytic reactions and is also involved in a number of non-glycolytic processes, such as endocytosis, DNA excision repair, and induction of apoptosis. Mammals are known to possess two homologous GAPD isoenzymes: GAPD-1, a well-studied protein found in all somatic cells, and GAPD-2, which is expressed solely in testis. GAPD-2 supplies energy required for the movement of spermatozoa and is tightly bound to the sperm tail cytoskeleton by the additional N-terminal proline-rich domain absent in GAPD-1. In this study we investigate the evolutionary history of GAPD and gain some insights into specialization of GAPD-2 as a testis-specific protein.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A dataset of GAPD sequences was assembled from public databases and used for phylogeny reconstruction by means of the Bayesian method. Since resolution in some clades of the obtained tree was too low, syntenic analysis was carried out to define the evolutionary history of GAPD more precisely. The performed selection tests showed that selective pressure varies across lineages and isoenzymes, as well as across different regions of the same sequences.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The obtained results suggest that GAPD-1 and GAPD-2 emerged after duplication during the early evolution of chordates. GAPD-2 was subsequently lost by most lineages except lizards, mammals, as well as cartilaginous and bony fishes. In reptilians and mammals, GAPD-2 specialized to a testis-specific protein and acquired the novel N-terminal proline-rich domain anchoring the protein in the sperm tail cytoskeleton. This domain is likely to have originated by exonization of a microsatellite genomic region. Recognition of the proline-rich domain by cytoskeletal proteins seems to be unspecific. Besides testis, GAPD-2 of lizards was also found in some regenerating tissues, but it lacks the proline-rich domain due to tissue-specific alternative splicing.</p

    Effect of blood glucose level on standardized uptake value (SUV) in F-18- FDG PET-scan : a systematic review and meta-analysis of 20,807 individual SUV measurements

    Get PDF
    Objectives To evaluate the effect of pre-scan blood glucose levels (BGL) on standardized uptake value (SUV) in F-18-FDG-PET scan. Methods A literature review was performed in the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane library databases. Multivariate regression analysis was performed on individual datum to investigate the correlation of BGL with SUVmax and SUVmean adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus diagnosis, F-18-FDG injected dose, and time interval. The ANOVA test was done to evaluate differences in SUVmax or SUVmean among five different BGL groups (200 mg/dl). Results Individual data for a total of 20,807 SUVmax and SUVmean measurements from 29 studies with 8380 patients was included in the analysis. Increased BGL is significantly correlated with decreased SUVmax and SUVmean in brain (p <0.001, p <0.001,) and muscle (p <0.001, p <0.001) and increased SUVmax and SUVmean in liver (p = 0.001, p = 0004) and blood pool (p=0.008, p200 mg/dl had significantly lower SUVmax. Conclusion If BGL is lower than 200mg/dl no interventions are needed for lowering BGL, unless the liver is the organ of interest. Future studies are needed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET scan in diagnosis of malignant lesions in hyperglycemia.Peer reviewe