2,997 research outputs found

    Construction and Tests of Modules for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

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    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system and will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the pixel detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability, all combined with a low material budget. The pre-production phase of such pixel modules has nearly finished, yielding fully functional modules. Results are presented of tests with these modules.Comment: Poster at the XXIII Physics in Collisions Conference (PIC03), Zeuthen, Germany, June 2003, 3 pages, LaTeX, 2 eps figures. PSN FRAP1

    The Equivalence Theorem and Effective Lagrangians

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    We point out that the equivalence theorem, which relates the amplitude for a process with external longitudinally polarized vector bosons to the amplitude in which the longitudinal vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding pseudo-Goldstone bosons, is not valid for effective Lagrangians. However, a more general formulation of this theorem also holds for effective interactions. The generalized theorem can be utilized to determine the high-energy behaviour of scattering processes just by power counting and to simplify the calculation of the corresponding amplitudes. We apply this method to the phenomenologically most interesting terms describing effective interactions of the electroweak vector and Higgs bosons in order to examine their effects on vector-boson scattering and on vector-boson-pair production in ffˉf\bar{f} annihilation. The use of the equivalence theorem in the literature is examined.Comment: 20 pages LaTeX, BI-TP 94/1

    Effective Lagrangians with Higher Order Derivatives

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    The problems that are connected with Lagrangians which depend on higher order derivatives (namely additional degrees of freedom, unbound energy from below, etc.) are absent if effective Lagrangians are considered because the equations of motion may be used to eliminate all higher order time derivatives from the effective interaction term. The application of the equations of motion can be realized by performing field transformations that involve derivatives of the fields. Using the Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangians (Ostrogradsky formalism), Lagrangians that are related by such transformations are shown to be physically equivalent (at the classical and at the quantum level). The equivalence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian path integral quantization (Matthews's theorem) is proven for effective higher order Lagrangians. Effective interactions of massive vector fields involving higher order derivatives are examined within gauge noninvariant models as well as within (linearly or nonlinearly realized) spontaneously broken gauge theories. The Stueckelberg formalism, which relates gauge noninvariant to gauge invariant Lagrangians, becomes reformulated within the Ostrogradsky formalism.Comment: 17 pages LaTeX, BI-TP 93/2

    System Tests of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

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    The innermost part of the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) experiment at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) will be a pixel detector, which is presently under construction. Once installed into the experimental area, access will be extremely limited. To ensure that the integrated detector assembly operates as expected, a fraction of the detector which includes the power supplies and monitoring system, the optical readout, and the pixel modules themselves, has been assembled and operated in a laboratory setting for what we refer to as system tests. Results from these tests are presented.Comment: 5 Pages, 9 Figures, to appear in Proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop on Electronics for LHC and Future Experiment

    Equivalence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Path Integral Quantization: Effective Gauge Theories

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    The equivalence of correct Hamiltonian and naive Lagrangian (Faddeev--Popov) path integral quantization (Matthews's theorem) is proven for gauge theories with arbitrary effective interaction terms. Effective gauge-boson self-interactions and effective interactions with scalar and fermion fields are considered. This result becomes extended to effective gauge theories with higher derivatives of the fields.Comment: 14 pages LaTeX, BI-TP 93/40, August 199

    High-Energy Vector-Boson Scattering with Non-Standard Interactions and the Role of a Scalar Sector

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    The high-energy behavior of vector-boson scattering amplitudes is examined within an effective theory for non-standard self-interactions of electroweak vector-bosons. Irrespectively of whether this theory is brought into a gauge invariant form by including non-standard interactions of a Higgs particle I find that terms that grow particularly strongly with increasing scattering energy are absent. Different theories are compared concerning their high-energy behavior and the appearance of divergences at the one-loop level.Comment: 21 pages LaTeX, condensed version of BI-TP 93/5

    Hamiltonian embedding of the massive Yang-Mills theory and the generalized St\"uckelberg formalism

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    Using the general notions of Batalin, Fradkin, Fradkina and Tyutin to convert second class systems into first class ones, we present a gauge invariant formulation of the massive Yang-Mills theory by embedding it in an extended phase space. The infinite set of correction terms necessary for obtaining the involutive constraints and Hamiltonian is explicitly computed and expressed in a closed form. It is also shown that the extra fields introduced in the correction terms are exactly identified with the auxiliary scalars used in the generalized St\"uckelberg formalism for converting a gauge noninvariant Lagrangian into a gauge invariant form.Comment: 31 pages, Latex, very minor changes, a concluding paragraph inserted, version to appear in Nucl. Phys.

    Deriving Non-decoupling Effects of Heavy Fields from the Path Integral: a Heavy Higgs Field in an SU(2) Gauge Theory

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    We describe a method to remove non-decoupling heavy fields from a quantized field theory and to construct a low-energy one-loop effective Lagrangian by integrating out the heavy degrees of freedom in the path integral. We apply this method to the Higgs boson in a spontaneously broken SU(2) gauge theory (gauged linear sigma-model). In this context, the background-field method is generalized to the non-linear representation of the Higgs sector by applying (a generalization of) the Stueckelberg formalism. The (background) gauge-invariant renormalization is discussed. At one loop the log M_H-terms of the heavy-Higgs limit of this model coincide with the UV-divergent terms of the corresponding gauged non-linear sigma-model, but vertex functions differ in addition by finite (constant) terms in both models. These terms are also derived by our method. Diagrammatic calculations of some vertex functions are presented as consistency check.Comment: 33 Pages LaTeX, 6 figures uuencoded postscrip

    Signal and noise of Diamond Pixel Detectors at High Radiation Fluences

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    CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors because of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at fluences in excess of 1015^{15} neq_{eq} cmÔłĺ2^{-2}, which are expected for the LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design, we determine the signal and the noise of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal decrease, the change of the mean free path ╬╗e/h\lambda_{e/h} of the charge carriers is determined as a function of irradiation fluence. We make use of the FE-I4 pixel chip developed for ATLAS upgrades to realistically estimate the expected noise figures: the expected leakage current at a given fluence is taken from calibrated calculations and the pixel capacitance is measured using a purposely developed chip (PixCap). We compare the resulting S/N figures with those for planar silicon pixel detectors using published charge loss measurements and the same extrapolation methods as for diamond. It is shown that the expected S/N of a diamond pixel detector with pixel pitches typical for LHC, exceeds that of planar silicon pixels at fluences beyond 1015^{15} particles cmÔłĺ2^{-2}, the exact value only depending on the maximum operation voltage assumed for irradiated silicon pixel detectors
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