713 research outputs found

    The CMS High Level Trigger

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    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.Comment: PIC2013 conferenc

    Performance of the online track reconstruction and impact on hadronic triggers at the CMS High Level Trigger

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    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with the detector readout, offline storage and analysis capabilities. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS reconstruction and analysis software running on a computer farm. The software-base HLT requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. This is going to be even more challenging during Run II, with a higher centre-of-mass energy, a higher instantaneous luminosity and pileup, and the impact of out-of-time pileup due to the 25 ns bunch spacing. The online algorithms need to be optimised for such a complex environment in order to keep the output rate under control without impacting the physics efficiency of the online selection. Tracking, for instance, will play an even more important role in the event reconstruction. In this poster we will present the performance of the online track and vertex reconstruction algorithms, and their impact on the hadronic triggers that make use of b-tagging and of jets reconstructed with the Particle Flow technique. We will show the impact of these triggers on physics performance of the experiment, and the latest plans for improvements in view of the Run II data taking in 2015.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1403.150

    Urinary Cytology: Potential Role in Canine Urinary Tract Infections

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    The diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) requires a concomitant evaluation of clinical signs and urine culture, which is of fundamental to start an appropriate antibiotic treatment. Several factors, such as subclinical bacteriuria or pre-analytical errors, may make the interpretation of urine culture difficult. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the finding of neutrophils and bacteria in unstained and stained canine urine sediment and the presence of clinical signs and positive urine culture. Urine samples from 35 dogs with clinical signs of UTI and 55 asymptomatic dogs with risk factors for UTI were prospectively collected by cystocentesis, divided into three aliquots, and submitted for: (1) physical and chemical Dipstick analysis and unstained urinary sediment (casts, crystals, bacteria, leucocytes, cells, parasites); (2) stained urinary sediment (extra/intracellular bacteria, degenerated and non-degenerated neutrophils); (3) qualitative and quantitative urine culture and antimicrobial sensitivity-test. The association between unstained and stained findings of urinary sediment and urine culture was tested. Sensibility, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values in diagnosing positive urine cultures of bacteria at unstained and stained evaluation were compared. Both wet-mount bacteriuria and the cytological presence of intracellular and extracellular bacteria, neutrophils, and degenerated neutrophils were successively associated with positive urine culture (p < 0.001). The presence of intracellular bacteria was the only independent predictor of positive urine culture. Total bacterial count did not differ significantly between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. Detection of extracellular and intracellular bacteriuria at stained urinary sediment significantly improved the sensibility of predicting positive urine culture. Cytologic evaluation of urinary sediment may be helpful in detecting signs of active inflammation, thus enhancing the clinical relevance of a positive urine culture

    Retrofitting traditional buildings: a risk-management framework integrating energy and moisture

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    Traditional buildings constitute a large proportion of the building stock in many countries worldwide; around 40% of the UK’s housing stock was built before 1940 and was primarily made with solid masonry walls. Only 11% of UK solid-walled dwellings had insulation installed, suggesting the high potential of the low-carbon retrofit of traditional buildings. However, there is evidence of the occurrence of unintended consequences, often associated with excess moisture. A method is presented for moisture risk management that includes the development of a process and a framework. These tools are then integrated into a novel framework for the combined energy and moisture performance retrofit of traditional buildings. An example of the framework’s practical application is provided, with a focus on retrofit measures for solid-wall insulation. The proposed systematic approach demonstrates the interconnected nature of energy and moisture. It harmonises the principles needed to support organisations in the delivery of robust retrofit of traditional buildings through the integration of pre-retrofit building assessment and post-retrofit monitoring in the process. The risk-management process and framework presented can be valuable tools to support designers in providing robust and scalable retrofit measures and strategies.   'Practice relevance' An integrated energy and moisture risk-management process is presented to support designers in the retrofit of traditional buildings. This is accompanied by a framework that explains the steps required for moisture risk management at the various stages of the retrofit process. This systematic approach harmonises the principles needed to support organisations in delivering robust low-carbon retrofits and integrates pre- and post-retrofit building assessment in the process. While previous work has addressed energy and moisture management separately, this integrates the two aspects into a framework for risk management. An example illustrates the relevant modes and methods of assessment and monitoring in support of risk management. When combined with practical guidelines and training, the risk-management process and framework can be valuable tools to provide robust and scalable retrofit measures and strategies. The framework was developed within the context of the UK construction industry; it can be adapted to other contexts

    A pilot study on the use of the super dimension navigation system for optimal cryobiopsy location in interstitial lung disease diagnostics.

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    BACKGROUND: Transbronchial cryobiopsies has become increasingly important in the diagnostic workup for interstitial lung diseases. The rate of complications and mortality are low compared to surgical lung biopsies, but the diagnostic yield is not as high. The reason for the lower diagnostic yield could in some cases be explained by biopsies taken too centrally or in less affected areas. In this pilot study we examined the feasibility of using the electromagnetic navigation system, superDimension (SD), when performing cryobiopsies to increase the diagnostic yield.METHODS: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy and cryobiopsies were performed using SD. An electromagnetic board placed on the back of the patient and a position sensor at the tip of the navigational probe created a real-time 3D reconstruction of previously acquired computer tomography images. The procedure was performed with the patients in general anesthesia using a rigid bronchoscope when performed in Florence and with a flexible bronchoscope through an orotracheal tube when performed in Aarhus.RESULTS: In total, 18 patients were included. Five patients were excluded, partly due to technical difficulties. Disposable 1.7 mm cryoprobes were used in Aarhus, and reusable 1.9 mm probes in Florence. Pneumothorax was detected in three (23%), mild hemorrhage was seen in one (8%) and moderate hemorrhage in six (46%). The biopsies contributed to the diagnosis in 11 of the patients (85%).CONCLUSION: Using superDimension electromagnetic navigation system when performing cryobiopsies is feasible. A larger prospective trial is necessary to homogenize the technique between centres and to evaluate diagnostic advantage and complications

    Antiretroviral treatment efficacy after mutations reversion during T20 monotherapy, an alternative strategy in multi-failed HIV-1 infected patients

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    Purpose of the study Monotherapy maintenance with 3TC after multiple therapeutic failure, helps in maintaining the number of CD4, but, at the same time, slows down the speed of reversion of mutations usually achieved during complete interruption of therapy. Monotherapy with enfuvirtide (T20) can be an interesting alternative to 3TC monotherapy, due to the CD4-enhancement typical of this drug even during therapeutic failure. Aim of this study was to assess, in a proof-of-concept study, the efficacy of T20-monotherapy to maintain the levels of CD4, to allow reversal of mutations in the pol gene, and eventually to favor long-term success of subsequent HAART

    Updates on Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma during the COVID‚Äź19 Outbreak

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    Background: During the lockdown period caused by the SARS‚ÄźCoV‚Äź2 pandemic, we monitored via online survey the trend of allergic symptoms and the therapeutic compliance in pa‚Äź tients followed at our center. Material and methods: In June 2020, we selected children followed at the Allergy and Immunology Service of Umberto I Hospital, aged between 6 and 16 years old, di‚Äź agnosed with asthma and/or rhinitis and sensitized to grass pollen or dust mite. We sent an email with 12 multiple‚Äźchoice questions investigating several areas: type of disease and sensitization, recurrence of symptoms, medication use during lockdown compared to the same period of the previous year. Results: The results of 82 questionnaires showed that 17.8% of patients suffered from asthma, 24.4% from rhinitis, and 57.8% from both. Within the group of asthmatic children, most of them presented an improvement of their symptoms. Likewise, with regard to allergic rhi‚Äź nitis, most of them reported better clinical conditions. Regarding treatment, we observed a global decrease in the use of on‚Äźdemand therapies (salbutamol, nasal corticosteroid, and antihistamine) for both pathologies. In addition, there was a reduction in the use of basal therapy for asthma and rhinitis from 2019 (23.3%) to 2020 (15.5%). Conclusions: Our data show a general trend of clinical improvement and a reduction in the use of on‚Äźdemand and basal therapy in allergic children during the lockdown

    How Can Scientific Literature Support Decision-Making in the Renovation of Historic Buildings?:An Evidence-Based Approach for Improving the Performance of Walls

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    Buildings of heritage significance due to their historical, architectural, or cultural value, here called historic buildings, constitute a large proportion of the building stock in many countries around the world. Improving the performance of such buildings is necessary to lower the carbon emissions of the stock, which generates around 40% of the overall emissions worldwide. In historic buildings, it is estimated that heat loss through external walls contributes significantly to the overall energy consumption, and is associated with poor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Measures to improve the performance of walls of historic buildings require a balance between energy performance, indoor environmental quality, heritage significance, and technical compatibility. Appropriate wall measures are available, but the correct selection and implementation require an integrated process throughout assessment (planning), design, construction, and use. Despite the available knowledge, decision-makers often have limited access to robust information on tested retrofit measures, hindering the implementation of deep renovation. This paper provides an evidence-based approach on the steps required during assessment, design, and construction, and after retrofitting through a literature review. Moreover, it provides a review of possible measures for wall retrofit within the deep renovation of historic buildings, including their advantages and disadvantages and the required considerations based on context
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