413 research outputs found

    Availability of evidence on cataract in low/middle-income settings: a review of reviews using evidence gap maps approach.

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    BACKGROUND: Despite high-quality evidence being essential for planning and delivering eye health programmes, evidence on what works is relatively scarce. To address this need, we developed eye health Evidence Gap Maps (EGMs) with the first one focusing on cataract. These maps summarise, critically appraise and present evidence in a user-friendly format. This paper presents experiences of developing the cataract gap map and discusses the challenges and benefits of the process. METHODS: Following a comprehensive search of relevant databases, we sifted and extracted data from all relevant reviews on cataract. Critical appraisal was conducted by two reviewers independently using Supported the Use of Research Evidence checklist and a summary quality assessment was shared with the authors for comments. RESULTS: A total of 52 reviews were included in the map. The majority of the reviews addressed quality of clinical care (20) and types of treatment (18). Overall, 30 reviews provided strong evidence in response to the research question, 14 reviews showed weak or no evidence and in 14 reviews the results were inconclusive. 14 reviews were regarded as high quality, 12 were medium quality and 26 were graded as low quality. To verify the validity of the Supporting the Use for Research Evidence (SURE) checklist, studies were also appraised using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool. Based on the κ statistics test, results showed excellent agreement between the two checklists (K=0.79). DISCUSSION: EGMs support policy makers and programme managers to make informed decisions and enable researchers to prioritise future work based on the most evident gaps on knowledge

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular oedema: A network meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication of diabetic retinopathy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) modalities can reduce oedema and thereby improve vision and prevent further visual loss. These drugs have replaced laser photocoagulation as the standard of care for people with DMO. OBJECTIVES: The 2014 update of this review found high-quality evidence of benefit with antiangiogenic therapy with anti-VEGF modalities, compared to laser photocoagulation, for the treatment of DMO.The objective of this updated review is to compare the effectiveness and safety of the different anti-VEGF drugs in preserving and improving vision and quality of life using network meta-analysis methods. SEARCH METHODS: We searched various electronic databases on 26 April 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any anti-angiogenic drug with an anti-VEGF mechanism of action versus another anti-VEGF drug, another treatment, sham or no treatment in people with DMO. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods for pair-wise meta-analysis and we augmented this evidence using network meta-analysis methods. We focused on the relative efficacy and safety of the three most commonly used drugs as interventions of direct interest for practice: aflibercept and ranibizumab, used on-label; and off-label bevacizumab.We collected data on three efficacy outcomes (gain of 15 or more Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters; mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA); mean change in central retinal thickness (CRT)), three safety outcomes (all severe systemic adverse events (SSAEs); all-cause death; arterial thromboembolic events) and quality of life.We used Stata 'network' meta-analysis package for all analyses. We investigated the risk of bias of mixed comparisons based on the variance contribution of each study, having assigned an overall risk of bias to each study. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-four studies included 6007 participants with DMO and moderate vision loss, of which two studies randomised 265 eyes of 230 participants and one was a cross-over study on 56 participants (62 eyes) that was treated as a parallel-arm trial. Data were collected on drugs of direct interest from three studies on aflibercept (975 eyes), eight studies on bevacizumab (515 eyes), and 14 studies on ranibizumab (1518 eyes). As treatments of indirect interest or legacy treatment we included three studies on pegaptanib (541 eyes), five studies on ranibizumab plus prompt laser (557 eyes), one study on ranibizumab plus deferred laser (188 eyes), 13 studies on laser photocoagulation (936 eyes) and six studies on sham treatment (793 eyes).Aflibercept, bevacizumab and ranibizumab were all more effective than laser for improving vision by 3 or more lines after one year (high-certainty evidence). Approximately one in 10 people improve vision with laser, and about three in 10 people improve with anti-VEGF treatment: risk ratio (RR) versus laser 3.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.79 to 4.79) for aflibercept; RR 2.47 (95% CI 1.81 to 3.37) for bevacizumab; RR 2.76 (95% CI 2.12 to 3.59) for ranibizumab. On average there was no change in visual acuity (VA) with laser after one year, compared with a gain of 1 or 2 lines with anti-VEGF treatment: laser versus aflibercept mean difference (MD) -0.20 (95% CI -0.22 to -0.17) logMAR; versus bevacizumab MD -0.12 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.09) logMAR; versus ranibizumab MD -0.12 (95% CI -0.14 to -0.10) logMAR. The certainty of the evidence was high for the comparison of aflibercept and ranibizumab with laser and moderate for bevacizumab comparison with laser due to inconsistency between the indirect and direct evidence.People receiving ranibizumab were less likely to gain 3 or more lines of VA at one year compared with aflibercept: RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.94), moderate-certainty evidence. For every 1000 people treated with aflibercept, 92 fewer would gain 3 or more lines of VA at one year if treated with ranibizumab (22 to 148 fewer). On average people receiving ranibizumab had worse VA at one year (MD 0.08 logMAR units, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.11), moderate-certainty evidence; and higher CRT (MD 39 µm, 95% CI 2 µm to 76 µm; low-certainty evidence). Ranibizumab and bevacizumab were comparable with respect to aflibercept and did not differ in terms of VA: RR of gain of 3 or more lines of VA at one year 1.11 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.43), moderate-certainty evidence, and difference in change in VA was 0.00 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.03) logMAR, moderate-certainty evidence. CRT reduction favoured ranibizumab by -29 µm (95% CI -58 µm to -1 µm, low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of overall statistical inconsistency in our analyses.The previous version of this review found moderate-certainty evidence of good safety of antiangiogenic drugs versus control. This update used data at the longest available follow-up (one or two years) and found that aflibercept, ranibizumab and bevacizumab do not differ regarding systemic serious adverse events (SSAEs) (moderate- or high-certainty evidence). However, risk of bias was variable, loop inconsistency could be found and estimates were not precise enough on relative safety regarding less frequent events such as arterial thromboembolic events or death (low- or very low-certainty evidence).Two-year data were available and reported in only four RCTs in this review. Most industry-sponsored studies were open-label after one year. One large publicly-funded study compared the three drugs at two years and found no difference. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF drugs are effective at improving vision in people with DMO with three to four in every 10 people likely to experience an improvement of 3 or more lines VA at one year. There is moderate-certainty evidence that aflibercept confers some advantage over ranibizumab and bevacizumab in people with DMO at one year in visual and anatomic terms. Relative effects among anti-VEGF drugs at two years are less well known, since most studies were short term. Evidence from RCTs may not apply to real-world practice, where people in need of antiangiogenic treatment are often under-treated and under-monitored.We found no signals of differences in overall safety between the three antiangiogenic drugs that are currently available to treat DMO, but our estimates are imprecise for cardiovascular events and death

    Corporate social and environmental responsibility in India - assessing the UN global compact's role

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    "This report presents the results of a research project carried out as part of the postgraduate training course of the German Development Institute (GDI), Bonn, in close cooperation with the Centre for Social Markets, India, and with the support of Ashok V. Desai, Consultant Editor of the Telegraph, India. The report is based on studies of the literature and on empirical data collected in India’s main industrial districts of Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore and Chennai from February to April 2006. The GDI research team would like to thank Sachin Joshi of the Centre for Social Markets and Ashok V. Desai for their strong scientific and technical support, without which this study would not have been possible. The research team would also like to express their thanks to the top officials of almost 40 Indian and foreign companies and 32 other stakeholders who spoke of their experience and responded to our questionnaire on CSR in India and the role of the UN Global Compact in particular. Last but not least, the authors are very grateful to experts from other Indian, international and German institutions who were kind enough to share their knowledge with us and so contributed to the writing of the report. However, the GDI team alone is responsible for the results presented here." (excerpt)Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die UN Global Compact-Initiative (UNGC), die im Jahr 2000 von dem damaligen UN-Generalsekretär Kofi Annan aus der Taufe gehoben wurde, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der sozialen und ökologischen Aktivitäten in Indien. Der Global Compact, ein weltweiter Pakt, der zwischen Unternehmen und der UNO geschlossen wird, basiert auf zehn Prinzipien, die der Einhaltung bestimmter sozialer und ökologischer Mindeststandards dienen. Dies sind beispielsweise die wesentlichen Konventionen zur Einhaltung der Menschenrechte, Vereinigungsfreiheit, keine Zwangsarbeit, keine Kinderarbeit, Nicht-Diskriminierung, wesentliche Prinzipien, wie sie in den Rio-Konventionen zum Umweltschutz verfasst worden sind, sowie das Prinzip gegen alle Formen von Korruption. (ICD2

    A systematic review of clinical practice guidelines for childhood glaucoma

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    Objective: To conduct a systematic review to identify and critically appraise clinical practice guidelines on the assessment, diagnosis and management of childhood glaucoma. Methods and analysis: A systematic literature search of databases and professional websites for clinical practice guidelines published on eye conditions between 2010 and April 2020 in English was conducted. Identified guidelines were screened for relevance to childhood glaucoma and exclusion criteria applied. Guidelines that passed the screening and quality appraisal with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) tool and, if they achieved a mean score of ≥45 and ≥3 on subsets of 9 and 5 AGREE II items, respectively, were selected for inclusion and data extracted using a standardised form. Results: Following screening and critical appraisal, three guidelines were included for data extraction. None of the three guidelines was specifically developed for childhood glaucoma. A consistent recommendation was that children should undergo some form of eye screening examination or a comprehensive eye assessment to detect paediatric eye disease. Children at high risk of childhood glaucoma should undergo additional screening. One clinical practice guideline recommended interventions for childhood glaucoma consisting of tube surgery and topical beta-blockers or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Recommended interventions for childhood glaucoma were based on low-quality to moderate-quality evidence or expert opinion. Conclusion: Based on our selection criteria, we did not identify any high-quality clinical practice guidelines specifically targeted at childhood glaucoma. This is compounded by the lack of high-quality evidence on childhood glaucoma

    Analysis of HIV Diversity in HIV-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (HPTN 061)

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    Background HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study. Methods A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and for 21 men who seroconverted during the study. HIV diversification was analyzed in a paired analysis for 62 HIV-infected men using plasma samples from the enrollment and 12-month (end of study) visits. Results Men with acute or recent infection at enrollment and seroconverters had lower median HRM scores (lower HIV diversity) than men with non-recent infection in all six regions analyzed. In univariate analyses, younger age, higher CD4 cell count, and HIV drug resistance were associated with lower median HRM scores in multiple regions; ARV drug detection was marginally associated with lower diversity in the pol region. In multivariate analysis, acute or recent infection (all six regions) and HIV drug resistance (both gag regions) were associated with lower median HRM scores. Diversification in the pol region over 12 months was greater for men with acute or recent infection, higher CD4 cell count, and lower HIV viral load at study enrollment. Conclusions HIV diversity was significantly associated with duration of HIV infection, and lower gag diversity was observed in men who had HIV drug resistance. HIV pol diversification was more pronounced in men with acute or recent infection, higher CD4 cell count, and lower HIV viral load

    Characterisation of the Cullin-3 mutation that causes a severe form of familial hypertension and hyperkalaemia

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    Deletion of exon 9 from Cullin‐3 (CUL3, residues 403–459: CUL3Δ403–459) causes pseudohypoaldosteronism type IIE (PHA2E), a severe form of familial hyperkalaemia and hypertension (FHHt). CUL3 binds the RING protein RBX1 and various substrate adaptors to form Cullin‐RING‐ubiquitin‐ligase complexes. Bound to KLHL3, CUL3‐RBX1 ubiquitylates WNK kinases, promoting their ubiquitin‐mediated proteasomal degradation. Since WNK kinases activate Na/Cl co‐transporters to promote salt retention, CUL3 regulates blood pressure. Mutations in both KLHL3 and WNK kinases cause PHA2 by disrupting Cullin‐RING‐ligase formation. We report here that the PHA2E mutant, CUL3Δ403–459, is severely compromised in its ability to ubiquitylate WNKs, possibly due to altered structural flexibility. Instead, CUL3Δ403–459 auto‐ubiquitylates and loses interaction with two important Cullin regulators: the COP9‐signalosome and CAND1. A novel knock‐in mouse model of CUL3WT/Δ403–459 closely recapitulates the human PHA2E phenotype. These mice also show changes in the arterial pulse waveform, suggesting a vascular contribution to their hypertension not reported in previous FHHt models. These findings may explain the severity of the FHHt phenotype caused by CUL3 mutations compared to those reported in KLHL3 or WNK kinases

    Differentiating glaucoma from chiasmal compression using optical coherence tomography: the macular naso-temporal ratio

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    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The analysis of visual field loss patterns is clinically useful to guide differential diagnosis of visual pathway pathology. This study investigates whether a novel index of macular atrophy patterns can discriminate between chiasmal compression and glaucoma. METHODS: A retrospective series of patients with preoperative chiasmal compression, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and healthy controls. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were analysed for the macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) thickness. The nasal hemi-macula was compared with the temporal hemi-macula to derive the macular naso-temporal ratio (mNTR). Differences between groups and diagnostic accuracy were explored with multivariable linear regression and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: We included 111 individuals (31 with chiasmal compression, 30 with POAG and 50 healthy controls). Compared with healthy controls, the mNTR was significantly greater in POAG cases (β=0.07, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.11, p=0.001) and lower in chiasmal compression cases (β=-0.12, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.09, p<0.001), even though overall mGCIPL thickness did not discriminate between these pathologies (p=0.36). The mNTR distinguished POAG from chiasmal compression with an AUC of 95.3% (95% CI 90% to 100%). The AUCs when comparing healthy controls to POAG and chiasmal compression were 79.0% (95% CI 68% to 90%) and 89.0% (95% CI 80% to 98%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The mNTR can distinguish between chiasmal compression and POAG with high discrimination. This ratio may provide utility over-and-above previously reported sectoral thinning metrics. Incorporation of mNTR into the output of OCT instruments may aid earlier diagnosis of chiasmal compression

    Interventions to promote access to eye care for non-Indigenous, non-dominant ethnic groups in high-income countries: a scoping review protocol.

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    INTRODUCTION: For many people, settling in a new country is associated with a new identity as an 'ethnic minority', one that can remain through future generations. People who are culturally distinct from the dominant population group may experience a variety of barriers to accessing healthcare, including linguistic and cultural barriers in communication, navigation of an unfamiliar health system and unconscious or overt discrimination. Here, we outline the protocol of a scoping review to identify, describe and summarise interventions aimed at improving access to eye care for non-Indigenous, non-dominant ethnic groups residing in high-income countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search MEDLINE, Embase and Global Health from their inception to July 2019. We will include studies of any design that describe an intervention to promote access to eye care for non-Indigenous, non-dominant ethnic groups. Two authors will independently review titles, abstracts and full-text articles for inclusion. Reference lists from all included articles will also be searched. In cases of disagreement between initial reviewers, a third author will help resolve the conflict. For each included article, we will extract data about the target population, details of the intervention delivered and the effectiveness of or feedback from the intervention. Overall findings will be summarised with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will summarise existing literature and as such ethics approval is not required. We will publish the review in an open-access, peer-reviewed journal, and draft appropriate summaries for dissemination to the wider community. This wider community could include clinicians, policymakers, health service managers and organisations that work with non-dominant ethnic groups. Our findings will also feed into the ongoing Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health

    Vision impairment and differential access to eye health services in Aotearoa New Zealand: protocol for a scoping review

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    INTRODUCTION: In Aotearoa New Zealand, Māori and Pacific people experience worse health outcomes compared with other New Zealanders. No population-based eye health survey has been conducted, and eye health services do not generate routine monitoring reports, so the extent of eye health inequality is unknown. This information is required to plan equitable eye health services. Here we outline the protocol for a scoping review to report the nature and extent of the evidence reporting vision impairment, and the use of eye health services by ethnicity in New Zealand. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An information specialist will conduct searches on MEDLINE and Embase, with no limit on publication dates or language. We will search the grey literature via websites of relevant government and service provider agencies. Reference lists of included articles will be screened. Observational studies will be included if they report the prevalence of vision impairment, or any of the main causes (cataract, uncorrected refractive error, macular degeneration, glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy) or report the use of eye health services in New Zealand among people of any age. Two authors will independently review titles, abstracts and full-text articles, and complete data extraction. Overall findings will be summarised using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis, with an emphasis on disaggregation by ethnicity where this information is available. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has not been sought as our review will only include published and publicly accessible data. We will publish the review in an open access peer-reviewed journal. We anticipate the findings will be useful to organisations and providers in New Zealand responsible to plan and deliver eye care services, as well as stakeholders in other countries with differential access to eye care. REGISTRATION DETAILS: The protocol has been registered with Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/yw7xb)

    A systematic review of clinical practice guidelines for childhood glaucoma.

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    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review to identify and critically appraise clinical practice guidelines on the assessment, diagnosis and management of childhood glaucoma. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic literature search of databases and professional websites for clinical practice guidelines published on eye conditions between 2010 and April 2020 in English was conducted. Identified guidelines were screened for relevance to childhood glaucoma and exclusion criteria applied. Guidelines that passed the screening and quality appraisal with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) tool and, if they achieved a mean score of ≥45 and ≥3 on subsets of 9 and 5 AGREE II items, respectively, were selected for inclusion and data extracted using a standardised form. RESULTS: Following screening and critical appraisal, three guidelines were included for data extraction. None of the three guidelines was specifically developed for childhood glaucoma. A consistent recommendation was that children should undergo some form of eye screening examination or a comprehensive eye assessment to detect paediatric eye disease. Children at high risk of childhood glaucoma should undergo additional screening. One clinical practice guideline recommended interventions for childhood glaucoma consisting of tube surgery and topical beta-blockers or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Recommended interventions for childhood glaucoma were based on low-quality to moderate-quality evidence or expert opinion. CONCLUSION: Based on our selection criteria, we did not identify any high-quality clinical practice guidelines specifically targeted at childhood glaucoma. This is compounded by the lack of high-quality evidence on childhood glaucoma
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