9,725 research outputs found

    The educational research-practice interface revisited

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    The question of how the realms of research and practice might successfully relate to one another is a persisting one, and especially so in education. The article takes a fresh look at this issue by using the terminology of collaboration scripts to reflect upon various forms of this relationship. Under this perspective, several approaches towards bridging the research/ practice gap are being described with regard to the type and closeness of interaction between the two realms. As different focuses and blind spots become discernible, the issue is raised concerning which 'script' might be appropriate depending upon the starting conditions of research interacting with practice

    Fostering shared knowledge with active graphical representation in different collaboration scenarios

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    This study investigated how two types of graphical representation tools influence the way in which learners use shared and unshared knowledge resources in two different collaboration scenarios, and how learners represent and transfer shared knowledge under these different conditions. Moreover, the relation between the use of knowledge resources, representation, and the transfer of shared knowledge was analyzed. The type of graphical representation (content-specific vs. content-unspecific) and the collaboration scenario (video conferencing vs. face-to-face) were varied. 64 university students participated. Results show that the learning partners converged in their profiles of resource use. With the content-specific graphical representation, learners used more appropriate knowledge resources. Learners in the computer-mediated scenarios showed a greater bandwidth in their profiles of resource use. A relation between discourse and outcomes could be shown for the transfer but not for the knowledge representation aspectIn dieser Studie werden die Wirkungen von verschiedenen Arten graphischer ReprĂ€sentation auf die Nutzung geteilter und ungeteilter Wissensressourcen in zwei verschiedenen Kooperationsszenarien untersucht. Des Weiteren wird analysiert, wie Lernende geteiltes und ungeteiltes Wissen unter diesen verschiedenen Bedingungen reprĂ€sentieren und transferieren. Schließlich wird die Beziehung zwischen der Nutzung von Wissensressourcen auf der einen Seite sowie der ReprĂ€sentation und dem Transfer geteilten Wissens auf der anderen Seite geprĂŒft. Mit der Art der graphischen ReprĂ€sentation (inhaltsspezifisch vs. inhaltsunspezifisch) und dem Kooperationsszenario (Videokonferenz vs. face-to-face) werden zwei Faktoren experimentell variiert. 64 Studierende nahmen an der Studie teil. Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Lernpartner in ihren Profilen der Ressourcennutzung konvergierten. Lernende, die durch die inhaltsspezifische graphische ReprĂ€sentation unterstĂŒtzt wurden, verwendeten angemessenere Wissensressourcen. Lernende in den computervermittelten Szenarien weisen eine grĂ¶ĂŸere Bandbreite in ihren Profilen der Ressourcennutzung auf. Eine direkte Wirkung vom Diskurs der Lernenden auf die Entwicklung geteilten Wissens konnte fĂŒr den Transfer, aber nicht fĂŒr die WissensreprĂ€sentation gezeigt werde

    From guided to self-regulated performance of domain-general skills

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    The fading of instructional scripts can be regarded as necessary for allowing learners to take over control of their cognitive activities during the acquisition of skills such as argumentation. There is, however, the danger that learners might relapse into novice strategies after script prompts are faded. One possible solution could be monitoring by a peer with respect to the performance of the strategy to be learned. We conducted a 2×2-factorial experiment with 126 participants with fading and peer monitoring as between-subjects factors to test the assumptions that (1) the combination of a faded script and peer monitoring has a positive effect on strategy knowledge compared to only one or none of the two types of support; and (2) this effect is due to a greater amount of self-regulated performance of the strategy after the fading of the script when peer monitoring takes place. The findings support these assumptions

    Knowledge convergence in computer-supported collaborative learning

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    This study investigates how two types of graphical representation tools influence the way in which learners use knowledge resources in two different collaboration conditions. In addition, the study explores the extent to which learners share knowledge with respect to individual outcomes under these different conditions. The study also analyzes the relationship between the use of knowledge resources and different types of knowledge. The type of external representation (content-specific vs. content-independent) and the collaboration condition (videoconferencing vs. face-to-face) were varied. Sixty-four (64) university students participated in the study. Results showed that learning partners converged strongly with respect to their use of resources during the collaboration process. Convergence with respect to outcomes was rather low, but relatively higher for application-oriented knowledge than for factual knowledge. With content-specific external representation, learners used more appropriate knowledge resources without sharing more knowledge after collaboration. Learners in the computer-mediated collaboration used a wider range of resources. Moreover, in exploratory qualitative and quantitative analyses, the study found evidence for a relation between aspects of the collaborative process and knowledge convergence

    Scripts and scaffolds In Problem-based computer supported collaborative learning environments: fostering participation and transfer

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    This study investigates collaborative learning of small groups via text-based com-puter-mediated communication. We analyzed how two approaches to pre-structure communication influence participation, individual knowledge transfer, the conver-gence of participation and the convergence of knowledge among learning partners. We varied the factor "scripted cooperation" and the factor "scaffolding" in a 2x2-design. 105 university students of Pedagogy participated. Results show that scrip-ted cooperation was most and scaffolding least beneficial to individual transfer, knowledge convergence and participation in comparison to open discourseDiese Studie befasst sich mit kooperativem Lernen in Kleingruppen ĂŒber text-basierte computervermittelte Kommunikation. Es wurden zwei AnsĂ€tze der Vor-strukturierung von computervermittelter Kommunikation und ihre Auswirkungen auf Partizipation, individuellen Wissenstransfer, die Konvergenz der Partizipation und die Wissenskonvergenz innerhalb einer Lerngruppe untersucht. Dabei wurden die Faktoren "Kooperationsskript" und "Scaffolding" in einem 2x2-Design variiert. 105 Studierende der PĂ€dagogik nahmen teil. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich das Ko-operationsskript am gĂŒnstigsten und das Scaffolding am wenigsten gĂŒnstig auf individuellen Wissenstransfer, Wissenskonvergenz und Partizipation im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe des 'Offenen Diskurses' ausgewirkt ha

    Using the Internet to improve university education: Problem-oriented web-based learning and the MUNICS environment

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    Up to this point, university education has largely remained unaffected by the developments of novel approaches to web-based learning. The paper presents a principled approach to the design of problem-oriented, web-based learning at the university level. The principles include providing authentic contexts with multimedia, supporting collaborative knowledge construction, making thinking visible with dynamic visualisation, quick access to content resources via Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), and flexible support by tele-tutoring. These principles are used in the Munich Net-based Learning In Computer Science (MUNICS) learning environment, which is designed to support students of computer science to apply their factual knowledge from the lectures to complex real-world problems. For example, students can model the knowledge management in an educational organisation with a graphical simulation tool. Some more general findings from a formative evaluation study with the MUNICS prototype are reported and discussed. E.g., the students' ignorance of the additional content resources is discussed in the light of the well-known finding of insufficient use of help systems in software applicationsBislang wurden neuere AnsĂ€tze zum web-basierten Lernen in nur geringem Maße zur Verbesserung des UniversitĂ€tsstudiums genutzt. Es werden theoretisch begrĂŒndete Prinzipien fĂŒr die Gestaltung problemorientierter, web-basierter Lernumgebungen an der UniversitĂ€t formuliert. Zu diesen Prinzipien gehören die Nutzung von Multimedia-Technologien fĂŒr die Realisierung authentischer Problemkontexte, die UnterstĂŒtzung der gemeinsamen Wissenskonstruktion, die dynamische Visualisierung, der schnelle Zugang zu weiterfĂŒhrenden Wissensressourcen mit Hilfe von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien sowie die flexible UnterstĂŒtzung durch Teletutoring. Diese Prinzipien wurden bei der Gestaltung der MUNICS Lernumgebung umgesetzt. MUNICS soll Studierende der Informatik bei der Wissensanwendung im Kontext komplexer praktischer Problemstellungen unterstĂŒtzen. So können die Studierenden u.a. das Wissensmanagement in einer Bildungsorganisation mit Hilfe eines graphischen Simulationswerkzeugs modellieren. Es werden Ergebnisse einer formativen Evaluationsstudie berichtet und diskutiert. Beispielsweise wird die in der Studie festgestellte Ignoranz der Studierenden gegenĂŒber den weiterfĂŒhrenden Wissensressourcen vor dem Hintergrund des hĂ€ufig berichteten Befunds der unzureichenden Nutzung von Hilfesystemen beleuchte

    The use of additional information in problem-oriented learning environments

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    Self-directed learning with authentic and complex problems (problem-oriented learning) requires that learners observe their own learning and use additional information when it is appropriate – e.g. hypertextual information in computer-supported learning environments. Research results indicate that learners in problem-oriented learning environments often have difficulties using additional information adequately, and that they should be supported. Two studies with a computer-supported problem-oriented learning environment in the domain of medicine analyzed the effects of strategy instruction on the use of additional information and the quality of the problem representation. In study 1, an expert model was used for strategy instruction. Two groups were compared: one group with strategy modeling and one group without. Strategy modeling influenced the frequency of looked-up hypertextual information, but did not influence the quality of learners' problem representations. This could be explained by difficulties in applying the general hypertext information to the problem. In study 2, the additional information was presented in a more contextualized way as graphical representation of the case and its relevant concepts. Again, two groups were compared: one with a strategy instruction text and one without. Strategy instruction texts supported an adequate use of this graphical information by learners and had an effect on the quality of their problem representations. These findings are discussed with respect to the design of additional help systems in problem-oriented learning environments

    Facilitating argumentative knowledge construction with computer-supported collaboration scripts

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    Online discussions provide opportunities for learners to engage in argumentative debate, but learners rarely formulate well-grounded arguments or benefit individually from participating in online discussions. Learners often do not explicitly warrant their arguments and fail to construct counterarguments (incomplete formal argumentation structure), which is hypothesized to impede individual knowledge acquisition. Computer-supported scripts have been found to support learners during online discussions. Such scripts can support specific discourse activities, such as the construction of single arguments, by supporting learners in explicitly warranting their claims or in constructing specific argumentation sequences, e.g., argument–counterargument sequences, during online discussions. Participation in argumentative discourse is seen to promote both knowledge on argumentation and domain-specific knowledge. However, there have been few empirical investigations regarding the extent to which computer-supported collaboration scripts can foster the formal quality of argumentation and thereby facilitate the individual acquisition of knowledge. One hundred and twenty (120) students of Educational Science participated in the study with a 2×2-factorial design (with vs. without script for the construction of single arguments and with vs. without script for the construction of argumentation sequences) and were randomly divided into groups of three. Results indicated that the collaboration scripts could improve the formal quality of single arguments and the formal quality of argumentation sequences in online discussions. Scripts also facilitated the acquisition of knowledge on argumentation, without affecting the acquisition of domainspecific knowledge