20,162 research outputs found

    Mixing of pseudoscalar mesons and isospin symmetry breaking

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    Mixing of the pseudoscalar mesons is discussed in the quark-flavor basis with the hypothesis that the basis decay constants follow the pattern of particle state mixing. The divergences of the axial vector currents which embody the axial vector anomaly, combined with this hypothesis provide a calculational scheme for the parameters describing the mixing of the pion, eta and eta' mesons. Phenomenological applications of this mixing scheme are presented with particular interest focussed on isospin symmetry breaking in QCD estimated as eta and eta' admixtures to the pion. In contrast to previous work a possible difference in the basis decay constants f_u and f_d is considered and consequences of this potentially large effect on the strength of isospin symmetry breaking is discussed.Comment: 10 pages, (using LATEX with w-ijmpa.sty), invited talk presented at MESON 2004, 8th Intern. Workshop on Meson Production, Properties and Interaction

    Are star formation rates of galaxies bimodal?

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    Star formation rate (SFR) distributions of galaxies are often assumed to be bimodal with modes corresponding to star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively. Both classes of galaxies are typically studied separately and SFR distributions of star-forming galaxies are commonly modelled as lognormals. Using both observational data and results from numerical simulations, I argue that this division into star-forming and quiescent galaxies is unnecessary from a theoretical point of view and that the SFR distributions of the whole population can be well fit by zero-inflated negative binomial distributions. This family of distributions has 3 parameters that determine the average SFR of the galaxies in the sample, the scatter relative to the star-forming sequence, and the fraction of galaxies with zero SFRs, respectively. The proposed distributions naturally account for (i) the discrete nature of star formation, (ii) the presence of 'dead' galaxies with zero SFRs, and (iii) asymmetric scatter. Excluding 'dead' galaxies, the distribution of log SFR is unimodal with a peak at the star forming sequence and an extended tail towards low SFRs. However, uncertainties and biases in the SFR measurements can create the appearance of a bimodal distribution.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters, proof correcte

    Lessons from cosmic history: The case for a linear star formation -- H2 relation

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    Observations show that star formation in galaxies is closely correlated with the abundance of molecular hydrogen. Modeling this empirical relation from first principles proves challenging, however, and many questions regarding its properties remain open. For instance, the exact functional form of the relation is still debated and it is also unknown whether it applies at z>4, where CO observations are sparse. Here, we analyze how the shape of the star formation -- gas relation affects the cosmic star formation history and global galaxy properties using an analytic model that follows the average evolution of galaxies in dark matter halos across cosmic time. We show that a linear relation with an H2 depletion time of ~2.5 Gyr, as found in studies of nearby galaxies, results in good agreement with current observations of galaxies at both low and high redshift. These observations include the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate density, the z~4-9 UV luminosity function, the evolution of the mass -- metallicity relation, the relation between stellar and halo mass, and the gas-to-stellar mass ratios of galaxies. In contrast, the short depletion times that result from adopting a highly super-linear star formation -- gas relation lead to large star formation rates, substantial metal enrichment (~0.1 solar), and low gas-to-stellar mass ratios already at z~10, in disagreement with observations. These results can be understood in terms of an equilibrium picture of galaxy evolution in which gas inflows, outflows, and star formation drive the metallicities and gas fractions toward equilibrium values that are determined by the ratio of the accretion time to the gas depletion time. In this picture, the cosmic modulation of the accretion rate is the primary process that drives the evolution of stellar masses, gas masses, and metallicities of galaxies from high redshift until today.Comment: 22 pages, 13 figures, minor revision after referee repor
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