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    Solutions for environmental contrasts in coastal areas: Coastal cities and climate change

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    Copyright @ 2011 Regional Studies Associatio

    Accessibility and urban design - Knowledge matters

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    Copyright @ 2009 Birmingham City University Publicatio

    Creative spaces and the art of urban living

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    Copyright @ 2009 Routledg

    Article Eight of the Federal Rules of Evidence: The Hearsay Rule

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    Irreversibility time scale

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    Entropy creation rate is introduced for a system interacting with thermostats ({\it i.e.}, in the usual language, for a system subject to internal conservative forces interacting with ``external'' thermostats via conservative forces) and a fluctuation theorem for it is proved. As an application a time scale is introduced, to be interpreted as the time over which irreversibility becomes manifest in a process leading from an initial to a final stationary state of a mechanical system in a general nonequilibrium context. The time scale is evaluated in a few examples, including the classical Joule-Thompson process (gas expansion in a vacuum). The new version (n.2) contains several comments on references pointed out to me after posting the version n.1.Comment: 6 pages 1 figur
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