77 research outputs found

    Parallel Contests

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    A problem of Parallel Contests is raised and modeled. The equilibria in final situations of parallel contests are analyzed and characterized and the behaviours of contestants with different abilities’ parameters are explained. Given that the values of the prizes in the two contests are different, in equilibrium a group of strong players prefer entering into the contest with a higher prize. However, except the group of stronger ones, in equilibrium others will enter into both contests because they obtain equal expected revenue from the two contests, though these weak ones do not have equal probabilities to enter into the two parallel contests. Under the condition of rationalizability, this paper characterizes the respective distributions of contestants’ abilities in the two parallel contests, proves the existence of the equilibrium in parallel contests and completes the analysis of the parallel contests from the perspective of contestants.Parallel contests, Contest, Strategic behaviours

    Evolution in Symmetric Incomplete Information Games

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    The paper compares two models of evolution in symmetric two-player games with incomplete information. One model postulates that the type of a player is fixed, and evolution works within types. In the other model type-contingent strategies evolve. In the case of two types and two strategies it is shown that the stability properties of stationary states are the same under the two dynamics when payoffs do not depend on the type of the other player, but may differ when they do.incomplete information games, evolution, stability

    Three Sequential Cases: from Symmetry to Asymmetry

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    Three critical cases, involving asymmetric and symmetric cases, in the sequential stages of the n-player repeated auctions are analyzed and compared. These cases might arise in a process of sequential, identical or equivalent auctions, where the auction result may reveal information about the strength or competitiveness of the participants. The behaviours of different players are characterized. Generally a player bids more aggressively when facing a strong player rather than a weak player. However a player favours competing with a weak one rather than a strong one. By applying the concept of Conditional Stochastic Dominance, revenues of players and the seller between the three stages are compared. It is proved that in this sequential process the information structure of the auctions changes and the seller’s revenue increases. Finally, this n-player asymmetric auction model can also be used to compare the revenues between high-bid and open auctions and especially the results first derived by Maskin and Riley (2000) in two-player case are proved to be valid in the n-player case.Asymmetric auction; Revenue comparison

    Risk-Sharing in International Trade

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    Wage disputes from a game theory perspective

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    The microscopic examination of Phytophthora cinnamomi in plant tissues using fluorescent in situ hybridization

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    The microscopic examination of Phytophthora cinnamomi in plant tissues is often difficult as structures such as hyphae, chlamydospores and oospores are frequently indistinguishable from those of other fungi and oomycetes, with histological stains not enabling species differentiation. This lack of staining specificity makes the localization of P. cinnamomi hyphae and reproductive structures within plant tissues difficult, especially in woody tissues. This study demonstrates that with the use of a species-specific fluorescently labelled DNA probe, P. cinnamomi can be specifically detected and visualized directly using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) without damage to plant or pathogen cell integrity or the need for subculturing. This approach provides a new application for FISH with potential use in the detailed study of plant–pathogen interactions in plants

    The marker quantification of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 2: A middle-of-the-road scenario for the 21st century

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    AbstractStudies of global environmental change make extensive use of scenarios to explore how the future can evolve under a consistent set of assumptions. The recently developed Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) create a framework for the study of climate-related scenario outcomes. Their five narratives span a wide range of worlds that vary in their challenges for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Here we provide background on the quantification that has been selected to serve as the reference, or ‘marker’, implementation for SSP2. The SSP2 narrative describes a middle-of-the-road development in the mitigation and adaptation challenges space. We explain how the narrative has been translated into quantitative assumptions in the IIASA Integrated Assessment Modelling Framework. We show that our SSP2 marker implementation occupies a central position for key metrics along the mitigation and adaptation challenge dimensions. For many dimensions the SSP2 marker implementation also reflects an extension of the historical experience, particularly in terms of carbon and energy intensity improvements in its baseline. This leads to a steady emissions increase over the 21st century, with projected end-of-century warming nearing 4°C relative to preindustrial levels. On the other hand, SSP2 also shows that global-mean temperature increase can be limited to below 2°C, pending stringent climate policies throughout the world. The added value of the SSP2 marker implementation for the wider scientific community is that it can serve as a starting point to further explore integrated solutions for achieving multiple societal objectives in light of the climate adaptation and mitigation challenges that society could face over the 21st century