333 research outputs found

    Empathy Institutionalized: Sociocultural Dialogue as a Strategic Peacebuilding Initiative

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    A common adage used in psychological exploration tells us that “If you want to know the end, look at the beginning.” While typically employed to emphasize the importance of upbringing and environment on personal outcomes, this phrase can be equally applicable in examining the ways in which society has developed over time to produce our polarized sociopolitical culture of today. This work explores from an integrative psychosocial perspective the potential that exists in working to define a new “end” by shaping a new “beginning,” through going directly to the institutions that comprise our own beginnings— schools. Through a combined research lens of peace studies and developmental psychology, this presentation will examine in detail the capacities of sociocultural dialogue as a strategic peacebuilding initiative, specifically in the context of institutionalized education. Through initiating relevant, age-appropriate conversational opportunities for our youngest minds to encounter and understand difference, this method would thus essentially strive to serve as an embedded, ongoing strategic peacebuilding initiative that assumes a preventative rather than reactionary approach to conflicts in perspective. In using an interdisciplinary approach to both inform frameworks and measure outcomes of implementing developmentally appropriate sociocultural dialogues in early educational settings, we gain a heightened understanding of the ways in which these types of dialogues can contribute to increased levels of empathy—ultimately working, from the beginning, to pre-emptively instill qualities capable of bridging the divides which we have clearly seen to emerge in the end

    More Time, Less Crime? Estimating the Incapacitative Effect of Sentence Enhancements

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    Sentence enhancements may reduce crime both by deterring potential criminals and by incapacitating previous offenders, removing these possible recidivists from society for longer periods. I estimate the incapacitative effect of longer sentences by exploiting a 2001 change in Maryland’s sentencing guidelines that reduced the sentences of 23-, 24-, and 25-year-olds with juvenile delinquent records by a mean of 222 days. I find that, during this sentence disenhancement, offenders were, on average, arrested for 2.8 criminal acts and were involved in 1.4–1.6 serious crimes per person during the period when they would have otherwise been incarcerated. Although my findings are significantly lower than previous estimates of incapacitation, I find that, on the margin, the social benefit of the crimes averted by incapacitation is slightly higher than the marginal cost to the state of imposing a 1-year sentence enhancement

    Evidence from Prohibition shows that legalizing marijuana and ending the black market may lead to a decline in violence

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    One of the arguments put forward for the legalization of drugs such as marijuana, is that it will lead to a fall in violence associated with the black market for drugs. But should the two US states who have recently legalized the growth and consumption of marijuana now expect such a fall in violent behavior? Using data from the time of alcohol Prohibition in the 1920s, Emily Owens finds that violent homicides for those in their 20s (the age commonly associated with criminal violence) increased during Prohibition, and then fell once it was repealed, while violent homicides fell for those in their 30s, largely due to less alcohol fuelled violence

    Empathy Institutionalized: Sociocultural Dialogue as a Strategic Peacebuilding Initiative

    Get PDF
    A common adage used in psychological exploration tells us that “If you want to know the end, look at the beginning.” While typically employed to emphasize the importance of upbringing and environment on personal outcomes, this phrase can be equally applicable in examining the ways in which society has developed over time to produce our polarized sociopolitical culture of today. This work explores from an integrative psychosocial perspective the potential that exists in working to define a new “end” by shaping a new “beginning,” through going directly to the institutions that comprise our own beginnings— schools. Through a combined research lens of peace studies and developmental psychology, this presentation will examine in detail the capacities of sociocultural dialogue as a strategic peacebuilding initiative, specifically in the context of institutionalized education. Through initiating relevant, age-appropriate conversational opportunities for our youngest minds to encounter and understand difference, this method would thus essentially strive to serve as an embedded, ongoing strategic peacebuilding initiative that assumes a preventative rather than reactionary approach to conflicts in perspective. In using an interdisciplinary approach to both inform frameworks and measure outcomes of implementing developmentally appropriate sociocultural dialogues in early educational settings, we gain a heightened understanding of the ways in which these types of dialogues can contribute to increased levels of empathy—ultimately working, from the beginning, to pre-emptively instill qualities capable of bridging the divides which we have clearly seen to emerge in the end

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: Necessity of Real Time Tracking in Quality Measures and Outcomes

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    Abstract A High Reliability Organization (HRO), such as this Northern California Medical Center, holds itself to high standards of performance in the areas of recognition, ranking, and accreditation. The commonality between these high-scored and valuable acknowledgements is the pillars of Quality Outcomes. As benchmarking and reporting allow this facility to measure outcomes against self and other plans, it greatly strengthens the internal focus for continual improvement and goal setting in direct patient care and outcomes. A deeper layer of the Quality Department includes the bundle “ERAS – Enhanced Recovery After Surgery”, which is compiled of principles aiming to minimize opioid use, initiate nutrition, and support early ambulation during the first 12 hours of perioperative care among other elements which lead itself to quality care. In this Quality Improvement (QI) Intervention Plan, the ERAS bundle (documented nutrition, ambulation, and carbohydrate drink as applied to both Urgent and Non-Urgent surgical cases for 2021) is critically analyzed. Results were then reviewed, and intervention constructed using LEAN and TeamSTEPPS Methodology. Through this process opportunities have been identified for improved application and documentation of the bundle within surgical services; a plan intervention has been devised; execution and review of interventions has been planned. Diversity Awareness Model (DAM) was a driving factor in the development of the model. This QI plan supports the importance and effectiveness of using the Sidebar Summary and the Daily Tracker Tools in meeting the ERAS targets of Quality Measures and Outcomes. Target outcomes of ERAS bundle compliance (Urgent Cases 65% and Non-Urgent cases 75%) is attainable through the use of the Sidebar Summary within the EHR patient chart by Floor Nurses and the Daily Tracker (real time tracking) by the Nurse Managers. Key Words: enhanced recovery, ERAS, quality, quality outcomes, benchmarking, patient care, quality improvement, QI, target outcomes, tool, sidebar summary, real time, daily trackin

    Improving Fairness and Addressing Racial Disparities in the Delaware Criminal Justice System

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    This memorandum summarizes existing scholarly research on police stops; pretrial detention; charging, plea bargaining, and sentencing; and alternatives to incarceration. For each topic, the memo surveys the extent to which each of these contributes to racial disparities as well as inaccuracies in criminal justice; identifies reforms that have worked elsewhere to ameliorate these problems; and considers the extent to which these reforms are compatible with preserving and improving public safety. The memorandum concludes with a brief discussion of recent scholarship that both highlights larger social factors that contribute to disparity and identifies programs and initiatives outside of the criminal justice system that might reduce racial disparities within the system

    Can Ethical Business Behavior Be Legislated?

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    Throughout the history of the United States, there have been landmark business laws established with the intent to shape business practices and procedures in a way that we as a country deem ethical. In this paper I discuss some of the most important landmark acts passed by U.S. lawmakers in order to establish standards for ethical business practices and values that we strive to maintain and improve upon in corporate America today. My research question is, Can ethical business behavior be legislated? There are five dominant themes that emerge from this study. First, it is often a corporate scandal or a detrimental business faux pas that catches the attention of the media or citizen groups that creates an urgent outcry for government regulation. Second, a new law may also be created due to loopholes in an existing law that require specification and tightening through the establishment of a new law. Third, the fast-paced business environment of the United States requires new laws over time in order to remain relevant with the development of new aspects of business or the growth of a certain industry or innovation. Fourth, the support and awareness provided by organizations, associations and federal agencies of these landmark laws is crucial to the continued compliance by companies. Last, it is because of the human condition that legislation will always be needed to guide fair and honest business practices in compan1es

    Joining Together

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    President's column about LITA as a welcoming organization and the hope that it will continue under Core

    Examining Racial Disparities in Criminal Case Outcomes among Indigent Defendants in San Francisco

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    We reviewed 10,753 complete case records, consisting of cases between 2011 and 2014, from the San Francisco Public Defender's Office. These data were stored in the Public Defender's GIDEON case management system, which draws from data maintained by the San Francisco County Superior Court's larger case management system database. Unlike previous studies that rely solely on arrest and conviction data, these records cover the entire pretrial process, providing a richer portrait of the experiences of defendants in the criminal justice system. These data can help policymakers and stakeholders understand whether racial disparities exist in the outcomes of San Francisco criminal cases, including cases resolved by plea bargains , and how bargaining affects disparities in other areas of the criminal justice system, such as corrections. Where disparities were seen, we sought to understand them and to evaluate what changes could be made to ensure that similarly situate d individuals receive equal and race - neutral treatment in the criminal justice system. Such information could assist the Public Defender, the San Francisco District Attorney, the San Francisco Police Department, and other criminal justice stakeholders to ensure equitable treatment of all San Franciscans

    Eligibility for federal financial aid strongly impacts potential students’ decisions about going to college

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    Every year, the U.S government gives billions in financial aid for people on low incomes who want to go to college. But is this federal spending actually effective in closing the education gap between low and high income Americans? By examining the period between 2001 and 2006, when those who had been convicted of drug offenses were banned from federal aid, Emily Owens and Michael Lovenheim find that without aid, students are forced to delay their college entry by two years, and are generally less likely to enroll in college. They also find that the ban on aid did not deter young people from committing drug offences
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