14,888 research outputs found

    Computational Fluid Dynamics Applied to Transport Systems in Trees

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    Our ecosystem is dependent upon the ability of photosynthetic plants to convert solar energy into a form of energy useable to biological organisms. Even so, much remains to become understood about how plants function. With such expansive bodies,how do trees cyclewaterand nutrients throughouttheir bodies

    Regular Incidence Complexes, Polytopes, and C-Groups

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    Regular incidence complexes are combinatorial incidence structures generalizing regular convex polytopes, regular complex polytopes, various types of incidence geometries, and many other highly symmetric objects. The special case of abstract regular polytopes has been well-studied. The paper describes the combinatorial structure of a regular incidence complex in terms of a system of distinguished generating subgroups of its automorphism group or a flag-transitive subgroup. Then the groups admitting a flag-transitive action on an incidence complex are characterized as generalized string C-groups. Further, extensions of regular incidence complexes are studied, and certain incidence complexes particularly close to abstract polytopes, called abstract polytope complexes, are investigated.Comment: 24 pages; to appear in "Discrete Geometry and Symmetry", M. Conder, A. Deza, and A. Ivic Weiss (eds), Springe

    High current lightning test of space shuttle external tank lightning protection system

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    During lift-off, the shuttle launch vehicle (external tank, solid rocket booster and orbiter) may be subjected to a lightning strike. Tests of a proposed lightning protection method for the external tank and development materials which were subjected to simulated lightning strikes are described. Results show that certain of the high resistant paint strips performed remarkably well in diverting the 50 kA lightning strikes

    Searching for Stars in Compact High-Velocity Clouds. II

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    We address the hypothesis that High Velocity Clouds correspond to the "missing" dwarf galaxies of the Local Group predicted by cosmological simulations. To this end, we present optical and near-infrared photometry of five additional High Velocity Clouds, one of which produces Lyman series absorption on the sight line towards the Quasar Ton S210, with sufficient resolution and sensitivity to enable the detection of an associated stellar content. We do not detect significant stellar populations intrinsic to any of the five clouds. In combination with the results from our paper I, which had yielded non detections of stellar content in another five cases, we find that there is a 50% chance of getting a null result in ten trials if fewer than 7% of all High Velocity Clouds contain stars. We conclude that the population of High Velocity Clouds is an unlikely repository for the "missing" dwarfs of the Local Group.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures. submitted to MNRA

    Searching for Stars in Compact High-Velocity Clouds. I First Results from VLT and 2MASS

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    We investigate the hypothesis that compact high-velocity clouds (CHVC) are the "missing" dwarf galaxies of the Local Group, by searching them for populations of resolved stars. To this end we conducted two distinct tests based on optical and near-infrared single-star photometry. The optical and the near-infrared experiments complement one another; the optical data help us to rule out distant populations but they are restricted to the central regions of the gas distributions, whereas the near-infrared photometry allows us to set limits on nearby populations spread over the typical cloud size. First, we discuss deep optical single-star photometry of five CHVCs in the V and I filters, obtained with the FORS instrument at the Very Large Telecope (VLT). We find that their optical colour-magnitude diagrams are indistinguishable from that of a population of Galactic stars, and attribute all of the resolved stars to Galactic foreground. We present simulations which address the question of how much of a "normal" dwarf-galaxy type population we might hide in the data. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test allows us to set very stringent limits on the absence of a resolved stellar population in CHVCs. Second, we also culled near infrared single-star photometry in the J, H, and K_S bands for four of the CHVCs from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). The infrared data do not reveal any stellar contents in the CHVCs which resembles that of nearby dwarf galaxies either, and are explained with Galactic foreground as well. We interpret our null detections to indicate that the five CHVCs investigated by us do not host an associated stellar content which is similar to that of the known dwarf galaxies of the Local Group. These CHVCs are very likely pure hydrogen clouds in which no star formation has taken place over cosmic time.Comment: 13 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication by MNRA

    Lepton Mass Effects in Single Pion Production by Neutrinos

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    We reconsider the Feynman-Kislinger-Ravndal model applied to neutrino-excitation of baryon resonances. The effects of lepton mass are included, using the formalism of Kuzmin, Lyubushkin and Naumov. In addition we take account of the pion-pole contribution to the hadronic axial vector current. Application of this new formalism to the reaction nu(mu) + p --> mu + Delta at E(nu) approx 1 GeV gives a suppressed cross section at small angles, in agreement with the screening correction in Adler's forward scattering theorem. Application to the process nu(tau) + p --> tau + Delta at E(nu) approx 7 GeV leads to the prediction of right-handed tau polarization for forward-going leptons, in line with a calculation based on an isobar model. Our formalism represents an improved version of the Rein-Sehgal model, incorporating lepton mass effects in a manner consistent with PCAC.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures. Typos in eq. 9 and 27 corrected. Numbers in table I for coherent cross sections (RSA and RSC) corrected (normalization error). Figs 3 and 4 changed accordingly. These corrections also apply to the published version PRD 76, 113004 (2007

    Polarimetric Evidence of Non-Spherical Winds

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    Polarization observations yield otherwise unobtainable information about the geometrical structure of unresolved objects. In this talk we review the evidences for non-spherically symmetric structures around Luminous Hot Stars from polarimetry and what we can learn with this technique. Polarimetry has added a new dimension to the study of the envelopes of Luminous Blue Variables, Wolf-Rayet stars and B[e] stars, all of which are discussed in some detail.Comment: 8 pages, 2 encapsulated Postscript figures, uses lamuphys.sty. Invited review to appear in IAU Coll. 169, Variable and Non-Spherical Stellar Winds in Luminous Hot Stars, eds. B. Wolf, A.Fullerton and O. Stahl (Springer
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