4,172 research outputs found

    Enforcement and Public Corruption: Evidence from US States

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    We use high-quality panel data on corruption convictions, new panels of assistant U.S. attorneys and relative public sector wages, and careful attention to the consequences of modeling endogeneity to estimate the impact of prosecutorial resources on criminal convictions of those who undertake corrupt acts. Consistent with “system capacity” arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. We find more limited, recent evidence for the deterrent effect of increased prosecutions. We control for and confirm in a panel context the effects of many previously identified correlates and causes of corruption. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from past corruption convictions and political considerations, we show that this specification leads to larger estimates of the effect of resources on convictions. The results are robust to various ways of measuring the number of convictions as well as to various estimators.corruption; rent seeking; enforcement; efficiency wage; public sector wages; system capacity

    The Political Economy of Institutions and Corruption in American States.

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    Theoretically, this paper draws on political agency theory to formulate hypotheses. Empirically, it shows that political institutions have a role in explaining the prevalence of political corruption in American states. In the states, a set of democracies where the rule of law is relatively well established and the confounding effects of differing electoral systems and regimes are absent, institutional variables relating to the openness of the political system inhibit corruption. That is, other things equal, the extent to which aspiring politicians can enter and gain financial backing, and to which voters can focus their votes on policies and thereby hold incumbent politicians accountable for policy outcomes and find substitutes for them if dissatisfied with those outcomes, reduce corruption as a general problem of agency. These institutional effects are estimated in the presence of controls for variables representing other approaches.

    Automated mass spectrometer/analysis system: A concept

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    System performs rapid multiple analyses of entire compound classes or individual compounds on small amounts of sample and reagent. Method will allow screening of large populations for metabolic disorders and establishment of effective-but-safe levels of therapeutic drugs in body fluids and tissues

    A gas-liquid solid phase peptide and protein sequenator

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    A new miniaturized protein and peptide sequenator has been constructed which uses gas phase reagents at the coupling and cleavage steps of the Edman degradation. The sample is embedded in a matrix of Polybrene dried onto a porous glass fiber disc located in a small cartridge-style reaction cell. The protein or peptide, though not covalently attached to the support, is essentially immobile throughout the degradative cycle, since only relatively apolar, liquid phase solvents pass through the cell. This instrument can give useful sequence data on as little as 5 pmol or protein, can perform extended sequence runs (greater than 30 residues) on subnanomole quantities of proteins purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and can sequence hydrophobic peptides to completion. The sequenator is characterized by a high repetitive yield during the degradation, low reagent consumption, low maintenance requirements, and a degradative cycle time of only 50 min using a complete double cleavage program