12 research outputs found

    Lack of dystrophin protein Dp71 results in progressive cataract formation due to loss of fiber cell organization

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    International audiencePURPOSE:Dp71 is the main product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene in the central nervous system. While studying the impact of its absence on retinal functions, we discovered that mice lacking Dp71 also developed a progressive opacification of the crystalline lens. The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed characterization of the cataract formation in Dp71 knockout (KO-Dp71) mice.METHODS:Cataract formations in KO-Dp71 mice and wild-type (wt) littermates were assessed in vivo by slit-lamp examination and ex vivo by histological analysis as a function of aging. The expression and cellular localization of the DMD gene products were monitored by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Fiber cell integrity was assessed by analyzing the actin cytoskeleton as well as the expression of aquaporin-0 (AQP0).RESULTS:As expected, a slit-lamp examination revealed that only one of the 20 tested wt animals presented with a mild opacification of the lens and only at the most advanced age. However, a lack of Dp71 was associated with a 40% incidence of cataracts as early as 2 months of age, which progressively increased to full penetrance by 7 months. A subsequent histological analysis revealed an alteration in the structures of the lenses of KO-Dp71 mice that correlated with the severity of the lens opacity. An analysis of the expression of the different dystrophin gene products revealed that Dp71 was the major DMD gene product expressed in the lens, especially in fiber cells. The role of Dp71 in fiber cells was also suggested by the progressive disorganization of the lens fibers, which was observed in the absence of Dp71 and demonstrated by irregular staining of the actin network and the aqueous channel AQP0.CONCLUSIONS:While its role in the retina has been well characterized, this study demonstrates for the first time the role played by Dp71 in a different ocular tissue: the crystalline lens. It primarily demonstrates the role that Dp71 plays in the maintenance of the integrity of the secondary lens fibers

    Automatic diagnosis and biopsy classification with dynamic Full-Field OCT and machine learning

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    Abstract The adoption of emerging imaging technologies in the medical community is often hampered if they provide a new unfamiliar contrast that requires experience to be interpreted. Here, in order to facilitate such integration, we developed two complementary machine learning approaches, respectively based on feature engineering and on convolutional neural networks (CNN), to perform automatic diagnosis of breast biopsies using dynamic full field optical coherence tomography (D-FF-OCT) microscopy. This new technique provides fast, high resolution images of biopsies with a contrast similar to H&E histology, but without any tissue preparation and alteration. We conducted a pilot study on 51 breast biopsies, and more than 1,000 individual images, and performed standard histology to obtain each biopsy diagnosis. Using our automatic diagnosis algorithms, we obtained an accuracy above 88% at the image level, and above 96% at the biopsy level. Finally, we proposed different strategies to narrow down the spatial scale of the automatic segmentation in order to be able to draw the tumor margins by drawing attention maps with the CNN approach, or by performing high resolution precise annotation of the datasets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the high potential of D-FF-OCT coupled to machine learning to provide a rapid, automatic, and accurate histopathology diagnosis

    Lebecetin, a C-type lectin, inhibits choroidal and retinal neovascularization

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    International audienceAngiogenesis is a cause of visual impairment and blindness in the wet form of age-related macular degeneration and in ischemic retinopathies. Current therapies include use of anti-VEGF agents to reduce choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and edema. These treatments are effective in most cases, but spontaneous or acquired resistance to anti-VEGF and possible adverse effects of long-term VEGF inhibition in the retina and choroid highlight a need for additional alternative therapies. Integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5, which regulate endothelial cell proliferation and stabilization, have been implicated in ocular angiogenesis. Lebecetin (LCT) is a 30-kDa heterodimeric C-type lectin that is isolated from Macrovipera lebetina venom and interacts with alpha 5 beta 1-and alpha v-containing integrins. We previously showed that LCT inhibits human brain microvascular endothelial cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of LCT on ocular angiogenesis, we cultured aortic and choroidal explants in the presence of LCT and analyzed the effect of LCT on CNV in the mouse CNV model and on retinal neovascularization in the oxygen-induced retinopathy model. Our data demonstrate that a single injection of LCT efficiently reduced CNV and retinal neovascularization in these models

    AAV-mediated gene therapy in Dystrophin-Dp71 deficient mouse leads to blood-retinal barrier restoration and oedema reabsorption

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    International audienceDystrophin-Dp71 being a key membrane cytoskeletal protein, expressed mainly in Müller cells that provide a mechanical link at the Müller cell membrane by direct binding to actin and a transmembrane protein complex. Its absence has been related to blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability through delocalization and down-regulation of the AQP4 and Kir4.1 channels (1). We have previously shown that the adeno-associated virus (AAV) variant, ShH10, transduces Müller cells in the Dp71-null mouse retina efficiently and specifically (2,3). Here, we use ShH10 to restore Dp71 expression in Müller cells of Dp71 deficient mouse to study molecular and functional effects of this restoration in an adult mouse displaying retinal permeability. We show that strong and specific expression of exogenous Dp71 in Müller cells leads to correct localization of Dp71 protein restoring all protein interactions in order to re-establish a proper functional BRB and retina homeostasis thus preventing retina from oedema. This study is the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies in dealing with diseases with BRB breakdown and macular oedema such as diabetic retinopathy (DR)

    A rationally designed NRP1-independent superagonist SEMA3A mutant is an effective anticancer agent

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    Vascular normalizing strategies, aimed at ameliorating blood vessel perfusion and lessening tissue hypoxia, are treatments that may improve the outcome of cancer patients. Secreted class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3), which are thought to directly bind neuropilin (NRP) co-receptors that, in turn, associate with and elicit plexin (PLXN) receptor signaling, are effective normalizing agents of the cancer vasculature. Yet, SEMA3A was also reported to trigger adverse side effects via NRP1. We rationally designed and generated a safe, parenterally deliverable, and NRP1-independent SEMA3A point mutant isoform that, unlike its wild-type counterpart, binds PLXNA4 with nanomolar affinity and has much greater biochemical and biological activities in cultured endothelial cells. In vivo, when parenterally administered in mouse models of pancreatic cancer, the NRP1-independent SEMA3A point mutant successfully normalized the vasculature, inhibited tumor growth, curbed metastatic dissemination, and effectively improved the supply and anticancer activity of chemotherapy. Mutant SEMA3A also inhibited retinal neovascularization in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration. In summary, mutant SEMA3A is a vascular normalizing agent that can be exploited to treat cancer and, potentially, other diseases characterized by pathological angiogenesis