142 research outputs found

    Treatment of abdominal aortic anastomotic pseudoaneurysm with percutaneous coil embolization

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    AbstractIntraabdominal anastomotic pseudoaneurysms continue to be a late complication of aortic reconstructive procedures. Early surgical repair is critical but is associated with high operative mortality rates. We present a patient who was diagnosed with a distal anastomotic pseudoaneurysm 13 months after transabdominal repair of a symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Because of the poor operative risk, the patient was considered for a less invasive approach and underwent coil embolization of the abdominal aortic anastomotic pseudoaneurysm. The patient remains without recurrence of pseudoaneurysm 3.5 years later. (J Vasc Surg 2002;35:811-4.

    Natural history of gutter-related type Ia endoleaks after snorkel/chimney endovascular aneurysm repair.

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    OBJECTIVE: Alternative endovascular strategies using parallel or snorkel/chimney (chimney endovascular aneurysm repair [ch-EVAR]) techniques have been developed to address the lack of widespread availability and manufacturing limitations with branched/fenestrated aortic devices for the treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms. Despite high technical success and midterm patency of snorkel stent configurations, concerns remain regarding the perceived increased incidence of early gutter-related type Ia endoleaks. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and natural history of gutter-related type Ia endoleaks following ch-EVAR. METHODS: Review of medical records and available imaging studies, including completion angiography and serial computed tomographic angiography, was performed for all patients undergoing ch-EVAR at our institution between September 2009 and January 2015. Only procedures involving ≥1 renal artery with or without visceral snorkel stents were included. Primary outcomes of the study were presence and persistence or resolution of early gutter-related type Ia endoleak. Secondary outcomes included aneurysm sac shrinkage and need for secondary intervention related to the presence of type Ia gutter endoleak. RESULTS: Sixty patients (mean age, 75.8 ± 7.6 years; male, 70.0%) underwent ch-EVAR with a total of 111 snorkel stents (97 renal [33 bilateral renal], 12 superior mesenteric artery, 2 celiac). A mean of 1.9 ± 0.6 snorkel stents were placed per patient. Early gutter-related type Ia endoleaks were noted on 30.0% (n = 18) of initial postoperative imaging studies. Follow-up imaging revealed spontaneous resolution of these gutter endoleaks in 44.3%, 65.2%, and 88.4% of patients at 6, 12, and 18 months postprocedure, respectively. Long-term anticoagulation, degree of oversizing, stent type and diameter, and other clinical/anatomic variables were not significantly associated with presence of gutter endoleaks. Two patients (3.3%) required secondary intervention related to persistent gutter endoleak. At a mean radiologic follow-up of 20.9 months, no difference in mean aneurysm sac size change was observed between those with or without early type Ia gutter endoleak (-6.1 ± 10.0 mm vs -4.9 ± 11.5 mm; P = .23). CONCLUSIONS: Gutter-related type Ia endoleaks represent a relatively frequent early occurrence after ch-EVAR, but appears to resolve spontaneously in the majority of cases during early to midterm follow-up. Given that few ch-EVAR patients require reintervention related to gutter endoleaks and the presence of such endoleak did not correlate to increased risk for aneurysm sac growth, its natural history may be more benign than originally expected

    Late diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms substantiates underutilization of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening for Medicare beneficiaries

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    ObjectiveAbdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening remains largely underutilized in the U.S., and it is likely that the proportion of patients with aneurysms requiring prompt treatment is much higher compared with well-screened populations. The goals of this study were to determine the proportion of AAAs that required prompt repair after diagnostic abdominal imaging for U.S. Medicare beneficiaries and to identify patient and hospital factors contributing to early vs late diagnosis of AAA.MethodsData were extracted from Medicare claims records for patients at least 65 years old with complete coverage for 2 years who underwent intact AAA repair from 2006 to 2009. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography was tabulated from 2002 to repair. We defined early diagnosis of AAA as a patient with a time interval of greater than 6 months between the first imaging examination and the index procedure, and late diagnosis as patients who underwent the index procedure within 6 months of the first imaging examination.ResultsOf 17,626 patients who underwent AAA repair, 14,948 met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 77.5 ± 6.1 years. Early diagnosis was identified for 60.6% of patients receiving AAA repair, whereas 39.4% were repaired after a late diagnosis. Early diagnosis rates increased from 2006 to 2009 (59.8% to 63.4%; P < .0001) and were more common for intact repair compared with repair after rupture (62.9% vs 35.1%; P < .0001) and for women compared with men (66.3% vs 59.0%; P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, repair of intact vs ruptured AAAs (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.6) and female sex (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.5) remained the strongest predictors of surveillance. Although intact repairs were more likely to be diagnosed early, over one-third of patients undergoing repair for ruptured AAAs received diagnostic abdominal imaging greater than 6 months prior to surgery.ConclusionsDespite advances in screening practices, significant missed opportunities remain in the U.S. Medicare population for improving AAA care. It remains common for AAAs to be diagnosed when they are already at risk for rupture. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with early imaging rupture prior to repair. Our findings suggest that improved mechanisms for observational management are needed to ensure optimal preoperative care for patients with AAAs

    Assessment of Elastase-Induced Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Comparison of Ultrasound Imaging with In Situ Video Microscopy

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    Aims. The aim of this study was to definitively assess the validity of noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound (US) measurements of aortic luminal diameter (ALD) in a murine model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison with in situ video microscopy (VM). Methods. C57BL/6 mice underwent transient perfusion of the aorta with either elastase (n = 20: Elastase group) or saline (n = 10: Sham). Unoperated mice (n = 10) were also studied. Results. ALD measurements by US had excellent linear correlation and absolute agreement with that by VM in both Control (unoperated or sham-operated mice) and elastase groups (r = 0.96, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.88 and r = 0.93, ICC = 0.92, resp.). Bland-Altman analysis of US compared with VM measurements in both groups indicated good agreement, however US measurements were slightly but significantly higher than VM measurements in the control group (mean bias 0.039 mm, P < .05). Linear regression analysis revealed excellent correlation between US and VM measurements in both groups. (R2 = 0.91 in Control group, R2 = 0.85 in elastase group.) The reliability of US measurements was also confirmed by ex vivo histological measurements. Conclusions. High-frequency US provides reliable ALD measurements in developing murine abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

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    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease

    No Effect of Hypercholesterolemia on Elastase-Induced Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression

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    Objective: Epidemiological studies link hyperlipidemia with increased risk for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, the influence of lipid-lowering drugs statins on prevalence and progression of clinical and experimental AAAs varies between reports, engendering controversy on the association of hyperlipidemia with AAA disease. This study investigated the impact of hypercholesterolemia on elastase-induced experimental AAAs in mice. Methods: Both spontaneous (targeted deletion of apolipoprotein E) and induced mouse hypercholesterolemia models were employed. In male wild type (WT) C57BL/6J mice, hypercholesterolemia was induced via intraperitoneal injection of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) encoding a gain-of-function proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 mutation (PCSK9) followed by the administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) (PCSK9+HFD) for two weeks. As normocholesterolemic controls for PCSK9+HFD mice, WT mice were infected with PCSK9 AAV and fed normal chow, or injected with phosphate-buffered saline alone and fed HFD chow. AAAs were induced in all mice by intra-aortic infusion of porcine pancreatic elastase and assessed by ultrasonography and histopathology. Results: In spontaneous hyper- and normo-cholesterolemic male mice, the aortic diameter enlarged at a constant rate from day 3 through day 14 following elastase infusion. AAAs, defined as a more than 50% diameter increase over baseline measurements, formed in all mice. AAA progression was more pronounced in male mice, with or without spontaneous hyperlipidemia. The extent of elastin degradation and smooth muscle cell depletion were similar in spontaneous hyper- (score 3.5 for elastin and 4.0 for smooth muscle) and normo- (both scores 4.0) cholesterolemic male mice. Aortic mural macrophage accumulation was also equivalent between the two groups. No differences were observed in aortic accumulation of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, B cells, or mural angiogenesis between male spontaneous hyper- and normocholesterolemic mice. Similarly, no influence of spontaneous hypercholesterolemia on characteristic aneurysmal histopathology was noted in female mice. In confirmatory experiments, induced hypercholesterolemia also exerted no appreciable effect on AAA progression and histopathologies. Conclusion: This study demonstrated no recognizable impact of hypercholesterolemia on elastase-induced experimental AAA progression in both spontaneous and induced hypercholesterolemia mouse models. These results add further uncertainty to the controversy surrounding the efficacy of statin therapy in clinical AAA disease

    Background and Proposed Design for a Metformin Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Suppression Trial

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    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) may lead to rupture and death if left untreated. While endovascular or surgical repair is generally recommended for AAA greater than 5–5.5 cm, the vast majority of aneurysms detected by screening modalities are smaller than this threshold. Once discovered, there would be a significant potential benefit in suppressing the growth of these small aneurysms in order to obviate the need for repair and mitigate rupture risk. Patients with diabetes, in particular those taking the oral hypoglycaemic medication metformin, have been shown to have lower incidence, growth rate, and rupture risk of AAA. Metformin therefore represents a widely available, non-toxic, potential inhibitor of AAA growth, but thus far no prospective clinical studies have evaluated this. Here, we present the background, rationale, and design for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of metformin for growth suppression in patients with small AAA
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