18,148 research outputs found

    Thermal and Non-thermal radiation from pulsars: hints of physics

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    Thermal and non-thermal radiation from pulsars carries significant information from surface and would have profound implications on the state of dense matter in compact stars. For the non-thermal radio emission, subpulse drifting phenomena suggest the existence of Ruderman-Sutherland-like gap-sparking and strong binding of particles on pulsar polar caps. While conventional neutron star models can hardly provide such a high binding energy, the strong self-bound surface of quark-cluster stars can naturally solve this problem. As for the thermal one, the featureless X-ray spectra of pulsars may indicate a bare surface without atmosphere, and the ultrarelativistic fireball of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae would also require strong self-bound surfaces. Recent achievements in measuring pulsar mass and mass-radius relation further indicate a stiff equation of state and a self-bound surface. Therefore, we conjecture that matters inside pulsar-like compact stars could be in a quark-cluster phase. The surface of quark-cluster stars is chromatically confined and could initially be bare. Such a surface can not only explain above features, but may also promote a successful core-collapse supernova, and the hydro-cyclotron oscillation of the electron sea above the surface could be responsible for those absorption features detected in the X-ray spectrum.Comment: 4 pages, contribution to the ERPM conferences, Zielona Gora, April 201

    Quiver Matrix Mechanics for IIB String Theory (I): Wrapping Membranes and Emergent Dimension

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    In this paper we present a discrete, non-perturbative formulation for type IIB string theory. Being a supersymmetric quiver matrix mechanics model in the framework of M(atrix) theory, it is a generalization of our previous proposal of compactification via orbifolding for deconstructed IIA strings. In the continuum limit, our matrix mechanics becomes a (2+1)(2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with 16 supercharges. At the discrete level, we are able to construct explicitly the solitonic states that correspond to membranes wrapping on the compactified torus in target space. These states have a manifestly SL(2,\integer)-invariant spectrum with correct membrane tension, and give rise to an emergent flat dimension when the compactified torus shrinks to vanishing size.Comment: LaTeX 2e; 39 pages, 3 eps figures. v2: typos corrected; references added; identification of certain membrane states added. v3: minor corrections on membrane state
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