2,082 research outputs found

    Space and time from translation symmetry

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    We show that the notions of space and time in algebraic quantum field theory arise from translation symmetry if we assume asymptotic commutativity. We argue that this construction can be applied to string theory.Comment: 10 pages, Essential changes and additions, in particular, in the discussion of string field theor

    Extending the definition of entropy to nonequilibrium steady states

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    We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a finite classical system subjected to nongradient forces ξ\xi and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover-Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume that the microscopic dynamics is sufficiently chaotic (Gallavotti-Cohen chaotic hypothesis) and that there is a natural nonequilibrium steady state ρξ\rho_\xi. When ξ\xi is replaced by ξ+δξ\xi+\delta\xi one can compute the change δρ\delta\rho of ρξ\rho_\xi (linear response) and define an entropy change δS\delta S based on energy considerations. When ξ\xi is varied around a loop, the total change of SS need not vanish: outside of equilibrium the entropy has curvature. But at equilibrium (i.e. if ξ\xi is a gradient) we show that the curvature is zero, and that the entropy S(ξ+δξ)S(\xi+\delta\xi) near equilibrium is well defined to second order in δξ\delta\xi.Comment: plain TeX, 10 pagesemacs ded

    Stable resonances and signal propagation in a chaotic network of coupled units

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    We apply the linear response theory developed in \cite{Ruelle} to analyze how a periodic signal of weak amplitude, superimposed upon a chaotic background, is transmitted in a network of non linearly interacting units. We numerically compute the complex susceptibility and show the existence of specific poles (stable resonances) corresponding to the response to perturbations transverse to the attractor. Contrary to the poles of correlation functions they depend on the pair emitting/receiving units. This dynamic differentiation, induced by non linearities, exhibits the different ability that units have to transmit a signal in this network.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, to appear in Phys. rev.

    On the susceptibility function of piecewise expanding interval maps

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    We study the susceptibility function Psi(z) associated to the perturbation f_t=f+tX of a piecewise expanding interval map f. The analysis is based on a spectral description of transfer operators. It gives in particular sufficient conditions which guarantee that Psi(z) is holomorphic in a disc of larger than one. Although Psi(1) is the formal derivative of the SRB measure of f_t with respect to t, we present examples satisfying our conditions so that the SRB measure is not Lipschitz.*We propose a new version of Ruelle's conjectures.* In v2, we corrected a few minor mistakes and added Conjectures A-B and Remark 4.5. In v3, we corrected the perturbation (X(f(x)) instead of X(x)), in particular in the examples from Section 6. As a consequence, Psi(z) has a pole at z=1 for these examples.Comment: To appear Comm. Math. Phy

    Topics in chaotic dynamics

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    Various kinematical quantities associated with the statistical properties of dynamical systems are examined: statistics of the motion, dynamical bases and Lyapunov exponents. Markov partitons for chaotic systems, without any attempt at describing ``optimal results''. The Ruelle principle is illustrated via its relation with the theory of gases. An example of an application predicts the results of an experiment along the lines of Evans, Cohen, Morriss' work on viscosity fluctuations. A sequence of mathematically oriented problems discusses the details of the main abstract ergodic theorems guiding to a proof of Oseledec's theorem for the Lyapunov exponents and products of random matricesComment: Plain TeX; compile twice; 30 pages; 140K Keywords: chaos, nonequilibrium ensembles, Markov partitions, Ruelle principle, Lyapunov exponents, random matrices, gaussian thermostats, ergodic theory, billiards, conductivity, gas.

    Characterizing dynamics with covariant Lyapunov vectors

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    A general method to determine covariant Lyapunov vectors in both discrete- and continuous-time dynamical systems is introduced. This allows to address fundamental questions such as the degree of hyperbolicity, which can be quantified in terms of the transversality of these intrinsic vectors. For spatially extended systems, the covariant Lyapunov vectors have localization properties and spatial Fourier spectra qualitatively different from those composing the orthonormalized basis obtained in the standard procedure used to calculate the Lyapunov exponents.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Physical Review letter

    Phase transitions with four-spin interactions

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    Using an extended Lee-Yang theorem and GKS correlation inequalities, we prove, for a class of ferromagnetic multi-spin interactions, that they will have a phase transition(and spontaneous magnetization) if, and only if, the external field h=0h=0 (and the temperature is low enough). We also show the absence of phase transitions for some nonferromagnetic interactions. The FKG inequalities are shown to hold for a larger class of multi-spin interactions

    Linear response formula for piecewise expanding unimodal maps

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    The average R(t) of a smooth function with respect to the SRB measure of a smooth one-parameter family f_t of piecewise expanding interval maps is not always Lipschitz. We prove that if f_t is tangent to the topological class of f_0, then R(t) is differentiable at zero, and the derivative coincides with the resummation previously proposed by the first named author of the (a priori divergent) series given by Ruelle's conjecture.Comment: We added Theorem 7.1 which shows that the horizontality condition is necessary. The paper "Smooth deformations..." containing Thm 2.8 is now available on the arxiv; see also Corrigendum arXiv:1205.5468 (to appear Nonlinearity 2012

    Note on nonequilibrium stationary states and entropy

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    In transformations between nonequilibrium stationary states, entropy might be a not well defined concept. It might be analogous to the ``heat content'' in transformations in equilibrium which is not well defined either, if they are not isochoric ({\it i.e.} do involve mechanical work). Hence we conjecture that un a nonequilbrium stationary state the entropy is just a quantity that can be transferred or created, like heat in equilibrium, but has no physical meaning as ``entropy content'' as a property of the system.Comment: 4 page
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