24,249 research outputs found

    Effect of nuclear structure on Type Ia supernova nucleosynthesis

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    The relationship among nuclear structure, the weak processes in nuclei, and astrophysics becomes quite apparent in supernova explosion and nucleosynthesis studies. In this brief article, I report on progress made in the last few years on calculating electron capture and beta-decay rates in iron-group nuclei. I also report on applications of these rates to Type-Ia nucleosynthesis studies.Comment: To appear in the proceedings of Nuclei In the Cosmos 200

    Renormalization of Drift and Diffusivity in Random Gradient Flows

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    We investigate the relationship between the effective diffusivity and effective drift of a particle moving in a random medium. The velocity of the particle combines a white noise diffusion process with a local drift term that depends linearly on the gradient of a gaussian random field with homogeneous statistics. The theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulation. For the purely isotropic case the simulation, which measures the effective drift directly in a constant gradient background field, confirms the result previously obtained theoretically, that the effective diffusivity and effective drift are renormalized by the same factor from their local values. For this isotropic case we provide an intuitive explanation, based on a {\it spatial} average of local drift, for the renormalization of the effective drift parameter relative to its local value. We also investigate situations in which the isotropy is broken by the tensorial relationship of the local drift to the gradient of the random field. We find that the numerical simulation confirms a relatively simple renormalization group calculation for the effective diffusivity and drift tensors.Comment: Latex 16 pages, 5 figures ep

    Monte Carlo methods and applications for the nuclear shell model

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    The shell-model Monte Carlo (SMMC) technique transforms the traditional nuclear shell-model problem into a path-integral over auxiliary fields. We describe below the method and its applications to four physics issues: calculations of sdpf- shell nuclei, a discussion of electron-capture rates in pf-shell nuclei, exploration of pairing correlations in unstable nuclei, and level densities in rare earth systems.Comment: Proceedings of the Nuclear Structure '98 conference, Gatlinburg, TN, 10-15 August 199

    Calculation of exciton densities in SMMC

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    We develop a shell-model Monte Carlo (SMMC) method to calculate densities of states with varying exciton (particle-hole) number. We then apply this method to the doubly closed-shell nucleus 40Ca in a full 0s-1d-0f-1p shell-model space and compare our results to those found using approximate analytic expressions for the partial densities. We find that the effective one-body level density is reduced by approximately 22% when a residual two-body interaction is included in the shell model calculation.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figure

    Spin-Dependent Neutralino-Nucleus Scattering for A∌127A \sim 127 Nuclei

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    We perform nuclear shell model calculations of the neutralino-nucleus cross section for several nuclei in the A = 127 region. Each of the four nuclei considered is a primary target in a direct dark matter detection experiment. The calculations are valid for all relevant values of the momentum transfer. Our calculations are performed in the 3s2d1g7/21h11/23s 2d 1g_{7/2} 1h_{11/2} model space using extremely large bases, allowing us to include all relevant correlations. We also study the dependence of the nuclear response upon the assumed nuclear Hamiltonian and find it to be small. We find good agreement with the observed magnetic moment as well as other obervables for the four nuclei considered: ^{127}I, ^{129,131}Xe, and ^{125}Te.Comment: 23 pages + 7 postscript figures. LaTeX uses RevTe

    Dynamical transition for a particle in a squared Gaussian potential

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    We study the problem of a Brownian particle diffusing in finite dimensions in a potential given by ψ=ϕ2/2\psi= \phi^2/2 where ϕ\phi is Gaussian random field. Exact results for the diffusion constant in the high temperature phase are given in one and two dimensions and it is shown to vanish in a power-law fashion at the dynamical transition temperature. Our results are confronted with numerical simulations where the Gaussian field is constructed, in a standard way, as a sum over random Fourier modes. We show that when the number of Fourier modes is finite the low temperature diffusion constant becomes non-zero and has an Arrhenius form. Thus we have a simple model with a fully understood finite size scaling theory for the dynamical transition. In addition we analyse the nature of the anomalous diffusion in the low temperature regime and show that the anomalous exponent agrees with that predicted by a trap model.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures .eps, JPA styl

    Some observations on the renormalization of membrane rigidity by long-range interactions

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    We consider the renormalization of the bending and Gaussian rigidity of model membranes induced by long-range interactions between the components making up the membrane. In particular we analyze the effect of a finite membrane thickness on the renormalization of the bending and Gaussian rigidity by long-range interactions. Particular attention is paid to the case where the interactions are of a van der Waals type.Comment: 11 pages RexTex, no figure