4,129 research outputs found

    Current iodine status and progress over the last decade towards elimination of iodine deficiency in Rajkot District, Gujarat

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    Objective: To find out prevalence of goitre in primary school children; to compare prevalence with previous survey; to determine median urinary iodine concentration; to assess level of iodine in salt samples at household and retail shop level; and to study profile of salt sold at retail shops. Design & Settings: 30 cluster survey study in primary schools of Rajkot district. Subjects: Children studying in 1st to 7th standard. Methods: Total 70 students including five boys and five girls from 1st to 7th standard present in class on the day of visit were selected randomly for Goitre examination, so, total 2100 students were examined in schools. Urine sample was collected from one boy & one girl from each standard in each cluster. From community, 28 students including two boys and two girls from each standard in same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and salts were purchased and tested for iodine on the spot with spot kit. Results: Goitre prevalence was found 8.8% among primary school children compare to 5.6% in 1999. As the age increases the Goitre prevalence also increases except in age group of 12 years. Median urinary iodine excretion level was found 110 µg/L. Iodine level >15 ppm was found in 81% salts samples tested at household level. Conclusion: Present study showed mild Goitre prevalence in primary school children in Rajkot district of Gujarat but still iodine content of salt found inadequate at household level

    Sickle cell disease status among school adolescents and their tribal community in South Gujarat

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    Objectives: to create awareness, to screen samples of school adolescents and then to reach their community through them by doing surveillance for sickle cell disease. Design: Field based cross-sectional study. Settings: St Xavier`s high school and Vanraj high school of Umarpada taluka of Surat district. Subjects: School adolescents, their parents and friends. Method: After taking permission from school authority, blood samples of 948 school adolescents were taken for DTT test and then for electrophoresis. Blood samples of motivated parents and friends of those adolescents found positive for DTT was taken in subsequent visit and results were communicated to them. Results: Blood samples of 948 school adolescents, out of 1081 were tested for DTT test. It was positive in 242 samples, giving a prevalence of 25.5% for sickle cell disease. On subjecting the positive blood samples to electrophoresis, the proportion of sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease was found to be 92% and 8% respectively. Then electrophoresis was done in 64 parents and friends, 24 (37.5%) of them were found positive of which, 14 (58%) were having sickle cell trait and 10 (42%) having sickle cell disease. Conclusion: approaching community can be possible through school adolescents for conduction of surveillance of sickle cell anemi

    Trifunctional Dibromomaleimide Reagents Built Around A Lysine Scaffold Deliver Site-selective Dual-modality Antibody Conjugation

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    We describe the synthesis and application of a selection of trifunctional reagents for the dual-modality modification of native, solvent accessible disulfide bonds in trastuzumab. The reagents were developed from the dibromomaleimide (DBM) platform with two orthogonal clickable functional groups built around a lysine core. We also describe the development of an aryl diselenide additive which enables antibody disulfide reduction in 4 minutes and a rapid overall reduction-bridging-double click sequence

    Characteristics of Fatal Cases of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) from September 2009 to January 2010 in Saurashtra Region, India

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    Background: India reported first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in May, 2009 and Saurashtra region in August, 2009. We describe the characteristics of fatal cases of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection reported in Saurashtra region. Methods: From September, 2009 to January, 2010, we observed 71 fatal cases that were infected with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and admitted in different hospitals in Rajkot city. Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) testing was used to confirm infection; the clinico-epidemiological features were observed and documented. Results: Median age of the deceased (71) was 29 years, and 57.7% were females. Median time observed was 5 days from onset of illness to diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1), and 57.7% were referred from general practitioner (OR=0.42, CI=0.24-0.74). Median hospital stay reported was 3 days. All admitted patients received oseltamivir, but only 16.9% received it within 2 days of onset of illness. The most common symptoms were cough (97.2%), fever (93%), sore throat and shortness of breath. Co-morbid conditions were present in almost half of the patients who ultimately died, the most common of which was pregnancy (OR=0.15, CI=0.04-0.52). Radiological pneumonia was reported in 98% patients. Conclusion: Residing in urban area, delayed referral from general practitioner, presence of co-existing condition, especially pregnancy was responsible for mortality among influenza A (H1N1) infected positive

    A study on diagnosis and management of arteriovenous malformation of uterus

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    Background: Arteriovenous malformation is abnormal connection between an organ’s arterial and venous circulation. In acquired AVM, history of uterine procedure seems inevitable. Their clinical feature is usually vaginal bleeding. It is diagnosed by 2-D ultrasonography combined with colour doppler. Most of the time they resolve spontaneously; however, if left untreated, uterine artery embolization or hysterectomy comes in hand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of TVUS and colour doppler in the diagnosis and follow-up of treated cases of uterine AVM. This study also aims to evaluate different modalities to manage uterine AVM.Methods: This was a retrospective study done at tertiary care centre from January 2018 to December 2019 to assess the presentation, treatment, and clinical pictures of patients with uterine AVM that were diagnosed with TVUS. Authors reviewed both (1) clinical data (2) ultrasound data of patients. The diagnostic criteria were “subjective” with a rich vascular network in the myometrium with the use of colour Doppler images and “objective” with a high PSV of 20 cm/sec in the vascular web.Results: Thirteen patients met the diagnostic criteria mentioned above. Out of that 100% presented with on and off bleeding per vaginum. Recent and remote history of uterine procedures were in found in 84.6% (n=11) of cases. UAE was done in 53.8% (n=7) cases. Thirty-three (33%) (n=5) cases spontaneously resolved when closely monitored with serial imaging and serum beta- HCG levels. Hysterectomy was needed in 7.4% (n=1) of patients of AVM.Conclusions: Uterine AVM occurred after unsuccessful pregnancies or uterine procedures. Triage of patients for expectant treatment, hormonal treatment vs intervention with uterine artery embolization based on their clinical status, which was supplemented by objective measurements of blood velocity measurement in the AVM, appears to be a good predictor of outcome

    A retrospective analysis of ectopic pregnancies in tertiary care hospital of Western India: two year study

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    Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the first trimester and major cause of reduced reproductive potential. Early detection of EP by improved ultrasonography modalities has decreased the rate of rupture and consequent maternal morbidity. Aim was to study the predisposing risk factors in modern scenario and choose the appropriate management available.Methods: A retrospective study on clinical diagnosis and management of EP of patients was carried out between January 2018 to February 2020. Investigations included CBC, UPT, serum β-hCG and TVS. Management was decided after thorough evaluation.Results: Out of 7,780 deliveries, 70 were EP (0.9%). Women with age 21-30 year had highest incidence (85.7%). Common symptoms were abdominal pain (94%), amenorrhea (87%), bleeding per vagina (48%). Most common risk factor associated with EP was PID (28.5%). Tubal EP was most common (84.2%) involving ampulla (66%), isthmus (15%), fimbria (12%), interstitial (7%). Scar ectopic was reported in 10% of cases and ovarian, rudimentary horn and abdominal pregnancy in 1.4% each. About 52.8% of ectopic was ruptured and salpingectomy was done in 74.3% and salpingo-oophorectomy in 2.8%. Five cases of scar EP required hysterotomy and 1 case was managed by methotrexate (MTX).Conclusions: EP remains a major challenge to the obstetrician worldwide. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely intervention in the form of medical or surgical treatment will definitely help in reducing the morbidity and mortality

    Dual reactivity disulfide bridging reagents; enabling new approaches to antibody fragment bioconjugation

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    Disulfide bridging, also known as disulfide stapling, is a powerful strategy for the construction of site-selective protein bioconjugates. Here we describe the first examples of a new class of such reagents, containing a ‘stable-labile’ design. These dual-reactive reagents are designed to form a stable bond to one cysteine and a labile bond to the second; resulting in a robust attachment to the protein with one end of the bridge, whilst the other end serves as a reactive handle for subsequent bioconjugation. By incorporating thioesters into these bridges, we demonstrate that they are primed for native chemical ligation (NCL) with N-terminal cysteines; offering an alternative to the requirement for C-terminal thioesters for use in such ligations. Alternatively, the use of hydrazine as the ligating nucleophile enables a separate cargo to be attached to each cysteine residue, which are exploited to insert variably cleavable linkers. These methodologies are demonstrated on an antibody fragment, and serve to expand the scope of disulfide bridging strategies whilst offering a convenient route to the construction of multifunctional antibody fragment conjugates

    Fetomaternal outcome in COVID-19 infected pregnant women: a preliminary clinical study

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    Background: WHO has declared COVID-19 infection a health emergency of international concern on 11th March, 2020. It is not clear whether clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 differ from those of nonpregnant women and whether it aggravates COVID-19 symptoms and whether antiviral therapy is necessary for COVID-19 infected pregnant women.Methods: This is prospective study of 125 cases based on the compiled clinical data for pregnant women with COVID-19 between 15th April 2020 and 10th June 2020. A laboratory confirmed positive case of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women were included.Results: The most common symptoms at presentation were cough in 61.6% (77/125) and fever in 46.4% (58/125). Other reported symptoms were sore throat in 13.6% (17/125), myalgia in 10.4% (13/125) while 38.4% (48/125) were asymptomatic. There were total 97 deliveries (including 2 twins’ deliveries) among which 3 cases had IUD. Present study reported 96 live births. The incidence of missed abortion was 2.4% (3/125). The incidence of preterm birth before 37 weeks was 8.2% (8/97). Ninety-six (96.9%) of neonates were tested for SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid on nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal samples and 16.67% (16/96) were resulted positive.Conclusions: At present, there is no evidence regarding the greater risk of pregnant women to succumb to COVID-19 infection and experience severe pneumonia. The risks of spontaneous abortion and preterm birth are not increased as reported in this study but shows possibility of vertical transmission when it manifests during the third trimester of pregnancy

    Study of various treatment modalities of caesarean scar pregnancy

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    Background: Caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) can be defined as the implantation of the gestational sac within the scar of a previous caesarean surgery. Incidence of CSP is 1 in 1800 pregnancies.Methods: It is a retrospective study based on clinical diagnosis and management of CSP of women who presented to the obstetrics and gynaecology department SVP hospital from January 2008 to August 2021. Total number of cases of CSP were 28. Incidence, gestational age, ultrasound findings, serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels, flow profiles of color Doppler, and different methods of treatment were recorded. Diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound.Results: In this study, all 28 cases of CSP considered were offered definitive management. In present study 5 cases (17.88%) showed torrential haemorrhage during dilatation and evacuation (D and E) which was treated by various methods like 1 (3.57%) Foley’s tamponade, 1 (3.57%) uterine artery embolization (UAE) and 3 (10.71%) hysterectomy. Hysterotomy was performed in 13 cases (46.42%) and (7.69%) of heterotrophic CSP (HCSP). One case (3.84%) of CSP presented at 26 weeks of gestation with haemorrhagic shock, underwent obstetric hysterectomy.Conclusions: There is a rise in the incidence of CSP because of increase in the global rate of caesarean sections and early transvaginal USG in pregnancy. Transvaginal sonography is the best diagnostic tool. Medical management can be offered when diagnosis is made at gestational age of 7 weeks of gestational age. Surgical management has an advantage of shorter follow up.

    Changing trends in fetomaternal outcome in COVID-19 in pregnancy

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    Background: This study is to provide an overview of the clinical course and outcome of COVID in pregnancy in both first wave and second wave, to study about different parameters affected significantly in both waves.Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study that was conducted by dividing the patients into group 1 and group 2. Group 1 was treated in 2020 (wave 1) whereas group 2 in 2021 (wave 2). A laboratory confirmed positive cases of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women were included. All the patients were further categorized into mild, moderate and severe subgroups according to the ICMR criteria. Results: The study of the first (2020) and second (2021) wave of COVID-19. In group 1 and group 2, there were a total of 359 cases and 145 cases respectively. In group 1, there were 54/359 (15.04%) moderate cases and in group 2 there were 17/145 (11.72%) moderate cases. While there were 101/359 (28.13%) and 106/145 (73.10%) severe cases in group 1 and group 2 respectively. Most of severe cases of second group associated with breathlessness, tachypnoea and fall in oxygen saturation level ended with mechanical ventilation by O2 mask (7.54%), NRBM (8.49%), HFNC (14.15%), BIPAP (12.26%), invasive ventilation (22.64%). Conclusions: The results of study show that hospitalized patients in the second wave were younger, required hospitalization, and had higher mortality rates
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