6 research outputs found

    On the Influence of the Bridge on Triplet State Delocalization in Linear Porphyrin Oligomers

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    The extent of triplet state delocalization is investigated in rigid linear zinc porphyrin oligomers as a function of interporphyrin bonding characteristics, specifically in <i>meso</i>-<i>meso</i> singly linked and β,<i>meso</i>,β fused structures, using electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. The results are compared with those of earlier measurements on porphyrin oligomers with alkyne linkers exhibiting different preferred conformations. It is shown that dihedral angles near 90° between the porphyrin planes in directly <i>meso</i>-to-<i>meso</i> linked porphyrin oligomers lead to localization of the photoexcited triplet state on a single porphyrin unit, whereas previous work demonstrated even delocalization over two units in <i>meso</i>-to-<i>meso</i> ethyne or butadiyne-bridged oligomers, where the preferred dihedral angles amount to roughly 30° and 0°, respectively. The triplet states of fused porphyrin oligomers (i.e., porphyrin tapes) exhibit extended conjugation and even delocalization over more than two porphyrin macrocycles, in contrast to <i>meso</i>-to-<i>meso</i> ethyne or butadiyne-bridged oligomers, where the spin density distribution in molecules composed of more than two porphyrin units is not evenly spread across the oligomer chain

    Triplet State Delocalization in a Conjugated Porphyrin Dimer Probed by Transient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Techniques

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    The delocalization of the photoexcited triplet state in a linear butadiyne-linked porphyrin dimer is investigated by time-resolved and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with laser excitation. The transient EPR spectra of the photoexcited triplet states of the porphyrin monomer and dimer are characterized by significantly different spin polarizations and an increase of the zero-field splitting parameter <i>D</i> from monomer to dimer. The proton and nitrogen hyperfine couplings, determined using electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and X- and Q-band HYSCORE, are reduced to about half in the porphyrin dimer. These data unequivocally prove the delocalization of the triplet state over both porphyrin units, in contrast to the conclusions from previous studies on the triplet states of closely related porphyrin dimers. The results presented here demonstrate that the most accurate estimate of the extent of triplet state delocalization can be obtained from the hyperfine couplings, while interpretation of the zero-field splitting parameter <i>D</i> can lead to underestimation of the delocalization length, unless combined with quantum chemical calculations. Furthermore, orientation-selective ENDOR and HYSCORE results, in combination with the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, allowed determination of the orientations of the zero-field splitting tensors with respect to the molecular frame in both porphyrin monomer and dimer. The results provide evidence for a reorientation of the zero-field splitting tensor and a change in the sign of the zero-field splitting <i>D</i> value. The direction of maximum dipolar coupling shifts from the out-of-plane direction in the porphyrin monomer to the vector connecting the two porphyrin units in the dimer. This reorientation, leading to an alignment of the principal optical transition moment and the axis of maximum dipolar coupling, is also confirmed by magnetophotoselection experiments

    On the Importance of Electronic Symmetry for Triplet State Delocalization

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    The influence of electronic symmetry on triplet state delocalization in linear zinc porphyrin oligomers is explored by electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. Using a combination of transient continuous wave and pulse electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopies, it is demonstrated experimentally that complete triplet state delocalization requires the chemical equivalence of all porphyrin units. These results are supported by density functional theory calculations, showing uneven delocalization in a porphyrin dimer in which a terminal ethynyl group renders the two porphyrin units inequivalent. When the conjugation length of the molecule is further increased upon addition of a second terminal ethynyl group that restores the symmetry of the system, the triplet state is again found to be completely delocalized. The observations suggest that electronic symmetry is of greater importance for triplet state delocalization than other frequently invoked factors such as conformational rigidity or fundamental length-scale limitations

    Electronic Delocalization in the Radical Cations of Porphyrin Oligomer Molecular Wires

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    The radical cations of a family of π-conjugated porphyrin arrays have been investigated: linear chains of <i>N</i> = 1–6 porphyrins, a 6-porphyrin nanoring and a 12-porphyrin nanotube. The radical cations were generated in solution by chemical and electrochemical oxidation, and probed by vis–NIR–IR and EPR spectroscopies. The cations exhibit strong NIR bands at ∼1000 nm and 2000–5000 nm, which shift to longer wavelength with increasing oligomer length. Analysis of the NIR and IR spectra indicates that the polaron is delocalized over 2–3 porphyrin units in the linear oligomers. Some of the IR vibrational bands are strongly intensified on oxidation, and Fano-type antiresonances are observed when activated vibrations overlap with electronic transitions. The solution-phase EPR spectra of the radical cations have Gaussian lineshapes with linewidths proportional to <i>N</i><sup>–0.5</sup>, demonstrating that at room temperature the spin hops rapidly over the whole chain on the time scale of the hyperfine coupling (ca. 100 ns). Direct measurement of the hyperfine couplings through electron–nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) in frozen solution (80 K) indicates distribution of the spin over 2–3 porphyrin units for all the oligomers, except the 12-porphyrin nanotube, in which the spin is spread over about 4–6 porphyrins. These experimental studies of linear and cyclic cations give a consistent picture, which is supported by DFT calculations and multiparabolic modeling with a reorganization energy of 1400–2000 cm<sup>–1</sup> and coupling of 2000 cm<sup>–1</sup> for charge transfer between neighboring sites, placing the system in the Robin–Day class III

    Electronic Delocalization in the Radical Cations of Porphyrin Oligomer Molecular Wires

    No full text
    The radical cations of a family of π-conjugated porphyrin arrays have been investigated: linear chains of <i>N</i> = 1–6 porphyrins, a 6-porphyrin nanoring and a 12-porphyrin nanotube. The radical cations were generated in solution by chemical and electrochemical oxidation, and probed by vis–NIR–IR and EPR spectroscopies. The cations exhibit strong NIR bands at ∼1000 nm and 2000–5000 nm, which shift to longer wavelength with increasing oligomer length. Analysis of the NIR and IR spectra indicates that the polaron is delocalized over 2–3 porphyrin units in the linear oligomers. Some of the IR vibrational bands are strongly intensified on oxidation, and Fano-type antiresonances are observed when activated vibrations overlap with electronic transitions. The solution-phase EPR spectra of the radical cations have Gaussian lineshapes with linewidths proportional to <i>N</i><sup>–0.5</sup>, demonstrating that at room temperature the spin hops rapidly over the whole chain on the time scale of the hyperfine coupling (ca. 100 ns). Direct measurement of the hyperfine couplings through electron–nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) in frozen solution (80 K) indicates distribution of the spin over 2–3 porphyrin units for all the oligomers, except the 12-porphyrin nanotube, in which the spin is spread over about 4–6 porphyrins. These experimental studies of linear and cyclic cations give a consistent picture, which is supported by DFT calculations and multiparabolic modeling with a reorganization energy of 1400–2000 cm<sup>–1</sup> and coupling of 2000 cm<sup>–1</sup> for charge transfer between neighboring sites, placing the system in the Robin–Day class III

    Magnetically Sensitive Radical Photochemistry of Non-natural Flavoproteins

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    It is a remarkable fact that ∼50 μT magnetic fields can alter the rates and yields of certain free-radical reactions and that such effects might be the basis of the light-dependent ability of migratory birds to sense the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. The most likely sensory molecule at the heart of this chemical compass is cryptochrome, a flavin-containing protein that undergoes intramolecular, blue-light-induced electron transfer to produce magnetically sensitive radical pairs. To learn more about the factors that control the magnetic sensitivity of cryptochromes, we have used a set of <i>de novo</i> designed protein maquettes that self-assemble as four-α-helical proteins incorporating a single tryptophan residue as an electron donor placed approximately 0.6, 1.1, or 1.7 nm away from a covalently attached riboflavin as chromophore and electron acceptor. Using a specifically developed form of cavity ring-down spectroscopy, we have characterized the photochemistry of these designed flavoprotein maquettes to determine the identities and kinetics of the transient radicals responsible for the magnetic field effects. Given the gross structural and dynamic differences from the natural proteins, it is remarkable that the maquettes show magnetic field effects that are so similar to those observed for cryptochromes
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