3,518 research outputs found

    Improving gas sensing properties of graphene by introducing dopants and defects: a first-principles study

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    The interactions between four different graphenes (including pristine, B- or N-doped and defective graphenes) and small gas molecules (CO, NO, NO2 and NH3) were investigated by using density functional computations to exploit their potential applications as gas sensors. The structural and electronic properties of the graphene-molecule adsorption adducts are strongly dependent on the graphene structure and the molecular adsorption configuration. All four gas molecules show much stronger adsorption on the doped or defective graphenes than that on the pristine graphene. The defective graphene shows the highest adsorption energy with CO, NO and NO2 molecules, while the B- doped graphene gives the tightest binding with NH3. Meanwhile, the strong interactions between the adsorbed molecules and the modified graphenes induce dramatic changes to graphene's electronic properties. The transport behavior of a gas sensor using B- doped graphene shows a sensitivity two orders of magnitude higher than that of pristine graphene. This work reveals that the sensitivity of graphene-based chemical gas sensors could be drastically improved by introducing the appropriate dopant or defect

    On the creep fatigue behavior of Metal Matrix Composites

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    The mechanical behaviour of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) subjected to a high temperature and cyclic load condition is difficult to understand. The significantly differing coefficients of thermal expansion between ceramic and metal give rise to micro thermal stresses. Their performance under varying load and high temperature is complex and inconsistent, where fatigue and creep damages become the main failures of MMCs. To improve current understanding of the relationship between creep fatigue interaction of MMCs, the history of thermal and mechanical loading, and the creep dwell period, a highly accurate but robust direct simulation technique on the basis of the Linear Matching Method (LMM) framework has been proposed in this paper, and been applied to model the fatigue and creep behaviour of MMCs. A homogenised FE model is considered in all analyses, which consist of continuous silicon carbide fibres embedded in a square 2024T3 aluminium alloy matrix array. Various factors that affect creep and fatigue behaviours of composites are analysed and discussed, including effects of the applied load level, dwell period and temperature on the MMC's performance. The effects of reversed plasticity on stress relaxation and creep deformation of MMC are investigated, and the behaviours of cyclically enhanced creep and elastic follow-up are presented. The applicability and accuracy of the proposed direct method has also been verified by the detailed step-by-step analysis via Abaqus

    Recreation Demand of Consumer with Experiential Marketing in Festival

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    AbstractExperiential marketing that allows visitors to fully participate and appreciate festival activities con be coupled with strategies of market segmentation, which is of great benefit to industrial and cultural activities. In this study, we used factor analysis method to understand the perception factor of visitors participate the Sweet Taiwan Year Festival in Tainan country of Taiwan. And segmented festival market by cluster analysis based on delineated experiential perception factors. The empirical result of this study shows that experiential perception clusters and the visitor type have become the most important factors in influencing the experiential value, the relation quality and the relation outcome

    Dispersal patterns of endogenous bacteria among grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) guts

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    The formation and regulation of vertebrate endogenous intestinal microbiota has been widely studied as the microbiota plays a crucial role in the host nutrition, development, and health. Despite the importance of microbiota for host health, it is still unclear whether the endogenous intestinal microorganisms are genetically distinct or whether they are genetically related with each other in different host individuals. In the present study, the dispersal situation of the endogenous intestinal bacteria in grass carp was investigated by constructing bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The results indicate that the bacteria harbored in the grass carp gut could be separated into the following two groups: a- the private operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which include Cetobacterium somerae, Aeromonas jandaei, Citrobacter freundii, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacteroides species; b- the shared OTUs, which include Vibrio cholerae, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Pasteurella speices. The results obtained in this investigation provide valuable information for assessing the mechanism of spread of the endogenous intestinal bacteria, especially the pathogenic ones. However, the mechanisms involved in different modes of bacterial dispersal in the grass carp gut still require further research

    Surface moisture increases microcracking and water vapour permeance of apple fruit skin

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    Surface moisture induces microcracking in the cuticle of fruit skins. Our objective was to study the effects of surface moisture on cuticular microcracking, the permeance to water vapour and russeting in developing ‘Pinova’ apple fruit. Surface moisture was applied by fixing to the fruit a plastic tube containing deionized water. Microcracking was quantified by fluorescence microscopy and image analysis following infiltration with acridine orange. Water vapour permeance was determined gravimetrically using skin segments (ES) mounted in diffusion cells. Cumulative water loss through the ES increased linearly with time. Throughout development, surface moisture significantly increased skin permeance. The effect was largest during early development and decreased towards maturity. Recovery time courses revealed that following moisture treatment of young fruit for 12 days, skin permeance continued to increase until about 14 days after terminating the moisture treatment. Thereafter, skin permeance decreased over the next 28 days, then approaching the control level. This behaviour indicates gradual healing of the impaired cuticular barrier. Nevertheless, permeance still remained significantly higher compared with the untreated control. Similar patterns of permeance change were observed following moisture treatments at later stages of development. The early moisture treatment beginning at 23 DAFB resulted in russeting of the exposed surfaces. There was no russet in control fruit without a tube or in control fruit with a tube mounted for 12 days without water. The data demonstrate that surface moisture increases microcracking and water vapour permeance. This may lead to the formation of a periderm and, hence, a russeted fruit surface

    Aerosol Emission Monitoring and Assessment of Potential Exposure to Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Manufacture of Polymer Nanocomposites

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    Recent animal studies have shown that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may pose a significant health risk to those exposed in the workplace. To further understand this potential risk, effort must be taken to measure the occupational exposure to CNTs. Results from an assessment of potential exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) conducted at an industrial facility where polymer nanocomposites were manufactured by an extrusion process are presented. Exposure to MWCNTs was quantified by the thermal-optical analysis for elemental carbon (EC) of respirable dust collected by personal sampling. All personal respirable samples collected (n = 8) had estimated 8-h time weighted average (TWA) EC concentrations below the limit of detection for the analysis which was about one-half of the recommended exposure limit for CNTs, 1 µg EC/m3 as an 8-h TWA respirable mass concentration. Potential exposure sources were identified and characterized by direct-reading instruments and area sampling. Area samples analyzed for EC yielded quantifiable mass concentrations inside an enclosure where unbound MWCNTs were handled and near a pelletizer where nanocomposite was cut, while those analyzed by electron microscopy detected the presence of MWCNTs at six locations throughout the facility. Through size selective area sampling it was identified that the airborne MWCNTs present in the workplace were in the form of large agglomerates. This was confirmed by electron microscopy where most of the MWCNT structures observed were in the form of micrometer-sized ropey agglomerates. However, a small fraction of single, free MWCNTs was also observed. It was found that the high number concentrations of nanoparticles, ~200000 particles/cm3, present in the manufacturing facility were likely attributable to polymer fumes produced in the extrusion proces

    Characterization of a wheat HSP70 gene and its expression in response to stripe rust infection and abiotic stresses

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    Members of the family of 70-kD heat shock proteins (HSP70 s) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, a wheat HSP70 gene was isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of wheat leaves infected by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. The gene, that was designated as TaHSC70, was predicted to encode a protein of 690 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 73.54 KDa and a pI of 5.01. Further analysis revealed the presence of a conserved signature that is characteristic for HSP70s and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that TaHSC70 is a homolog of chloroplast HSP70s. TaHSC70 mRNA was present in leaves of both green and etiolated wheat seedlings and in stems and roots. The transcript level in roots was approximately threefold less than in leaves but light–dark treatment did not charge TaHSC70 expression. Following heat shock of wheat seedlings at 40°C, TaHSC70 expression increased in leaves of etiolated seedlings but remained stable at the same level in green seedlings. In addition, TaHSC70 was differentially expressed during an incompatible and compatible interaction with wheat-stripe rust, and there was a transient increase in expression upon treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments had no influence on TaHSC70 expression. These results suggest that TaHSC70 plays a role in stress-related responses, and in defense responses elicited by infection with stripe rust fungus and does so via a JA-dependent signal transduction pathway

    Bias may be unintentional but it's still there

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    Modelling the social dynamics of a sex industry: Its implications for spread of HIV/AIDS

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    A theoretical model is proposed for a community which has the structure of two classes (direct and indirect) of commercial sex workers (CSW), and two classes of sexually active male customers with different levels of sexual activity. The direct CSW's work in brothels while the indirect CSW's are based in commercial establishments such as bars, cafes, and massage parlours where sex can be bought on request and conducted elsewhere. Behaviour change and the resulting change of activity class occurs between the two classes of CSW's and two classes of males under the setting of the proliferation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic and the subsequent intervention programmes. In recently years, this phenomenon has been observed in several countries in Asia. Given the lower levels of condom use and higher HIV prevalence of the indirect CSW's, ascertaining the impact of this change in the structure of the sex industry on the spread of HIV is the main focus of this paper. The complete analysis of the disease-free model is given. For the full model, local analysis will be performed for the case of preferred mixing without activity class change, as well as the case with activity class change and restricted mixing. The basic reproduction number for the spread of epidemic will be derived for each case. Results of biological significance include: (i) the change of behaviour by the CSW's has a more direct effect on the spread of HIV than that of the male customers; (ii) the basic reproduction number is obtained by considering all possible infection cycles of the heterosexual transmission of HIV which indicates the importance of understanding the sexual networking in heterosexual transmission of HIV; (iii) the social dynamics of the sex industry is not just a simple 'supply and demand' mechanism driven by the demand of the customers, hence highlighting the need for further understanding of the changing structure of the sex industry. The main points of this work will be illustrated with numerical examples using the HIV data of Thailand. (C) 2003 Society for Mathematical Biology Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Factors affecting In vitro methane production from cecum contents of White Roman geese

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    The goal of this research was to gain understanding of in vitro methane (CH4) production from the cecal contents of White Roman geese under various incubation conditions. Five experiments were conducted to ascertain the effects of i) incubation time, ii) pH, iii) the addition of formic acid to the culture media, iv) temperature, and v) the addition of salt to the nutritive liquid. Methane production increased significantly with the supplementation of formic acid in the culture fluid (Experiment III). Additionally, CH4 production Experiment V was higher than that without saline. In contrast, low CH4 production occurred under acidic conditions (pH ≦5.4) and at temperatures higher or lower than typical bird body temperature (43 °C) without formic acid and saline solution in the culture media. Since bird body temperature cannot be controlled easily, approaches such as maintaining cecum fluid at low pH and preventing the formation of formic acid by adjusting the recipes of feeds could be considered for controlling in vivo CH4 production from the intestinal tract digesta of geese