12 research outputs found

    Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement

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    We present a new method to measure the work ww performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P(w)P(w). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a POVM (positive operator valued measure) reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P(w)P(w). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.Comment: 4 page

    A Wigner quasiprobability distribution of work

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    In this article we introduce a quasiprobability distribution of work that is based on the Wigner function. This construction rests on the idea that the work done on an isolated system can be coherently measured by coupling the system to a quantum measurement apparatus. In this way, a quasiprobability distribution of work can be defined in terms of the Wigner function of the apparatus. This quasidistribution contains the information of the work statistics and also holds a clear operational definition. Moreover, it is shown that the presence of quantum coherence in the energy eigenbasis is related with the appearance of characteristics related to non-classicality in the Wigner function such as negativity and interference fringes. On the other hand, from this quasiprobability distribution it is straightforward to obtain the standard two-point measurement probability distribution of work and also the difference in average energy for initial states with coherences.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

    Multipurpose Quantum Thermodynamic Operations

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    Information processing, quantum or classical, relies on channels transforming multiple input states to different corresponding outputs. Previous research has established bounds on the thermodynamic resources required for such operations, but no protocols have been specified for their optimal implementation. For the insightful case of qubits, we here develop explicit protocols to transform multiple states in an energetically optimal manner. We first prove conditions on the feasibility of carrying out such transformations at all, and then quantify the achievable work extraction. Our results uncover a fundamental incompatibility between the thermodynamic ideal of slow, quasistatic processes and the information-theoretic requirement to preserve distinguishablity between different possible output states

    Quantum-classical correspondence in spin-boson equilibrium states at arbitrary coupling

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    It is known that the equilibrium properties of nanoscale systems can deviate significantly from standard thermodynamics due to their coupling to an environment. For the generalized θ\theta-angled spin-boson model, here we derive an explicit form of the classical mean force equilibrium state. Taking the large spin limit of the quantum spin-boson model, we demonstrate that the quantum-classical correspondence is maintained at arbitrary coupling strength. This correspondence gives insight into the conditions for a quantum system to be well-approximated by its classical counterpart. We further demonstrate that, counterintuitively, previously identified environment-induced 'coherences' in the equilibrium state of weakly coupled quantum spins, do not disappear in the classical case. Finally, we categorise various coupling regimes, from ultra-weak to ultra-strong, and find that the same value of coupling strength can either be 'weak' or 'strong', depending on whether the system is quantum or classical. Our results shed light on the interplay of quantum and mean force corrections in equilibrium states of the spin-boson model, and will help draw the quantum to classical boundary in a range of fields, such as magnetism and exciton dynamics

    Ultrastrong coupling between electron tunneling and mechanical motion

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    The ultrastrong coupling of single-electron tunneling and nanomechanical motion opens exciting opportunities to explore fundamental questions and develop new platforms for quantum technologies. We have measured and modelled this electromechanical coupling in a fully-suspended carbon nanotube device and report a ratio of gm/ωm=1.3g_m/\omega_m = 1.3, where gm/2π=420±20g_m/2\pi = 420\pm20~MHz is the coupling strength and ωm/2π=324\omega_m/2\pi=324~MHz is the mechanical resonance frequency. This is well within the ultrastrong coupling regime and the highest among current electromechanical platforms. Even higher ratios could be achieved with improvement on device design

    Stability of long-sustained oscillations induced by electron tunneling

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    Self-oscillations are the result of an efficient mechanism generating periodic motion from a constant power source. In quantum devices, these oscillations may arise due to the interaction between single electron dynamics and mechanical motion. Due to the complexity of this mechanism, these self-oscillations may irrupt, vanish, or exhibit a bistable behavior causing hysteresis cycles. We observe these hysteresis cycles and characterize the stability of different regimes in single and double quantum dot configurations. In particular cases, we find these oscillations stable for over 20 seconds, many orders of magnitude above electronic and mechanical characteristic timescales, revealing the robustness of the mechanism at play. The experimental results are reproduced by our theoretical model that provides a complete understanding of bistability in nanoelectromechanical devices.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figures, includes the complete paper and the Supplemental Materia

    Correlations as a resource in quantum thermodynamics

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    The presence of correlations in physical systems can be a valuable resource for many quantum information tasks. They are also relevant in thermodynamic transformations, and their creation is usually associated to some energetic cost. In this work, we study the role of correlations in the thermodynamic process of state formation in the single-shot regime, and find that correlations can also be viewed as a resource. First, we show that the energetic cost of creating multiple copies of a given state can be reduced by allowing correlations in the final state. We obtain the minimum cost for every finite number of subsystems, and then we show that this feature is not restricted to the case of copies. More generally, we demonstrate that in the asymptotic limit, by allowing a logarithmic amount of correlations, we can recover standard results where the free energy quantifies this minimum cost.Fil: Sapienza, Facundo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de FĂ­sica; ArgentinaFil: Cerisola, Federico. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Oficina de CoordinaciĂłn Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de FĂ­sica de Buenos Aires. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de FĂ­sica de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Roncaglia, Augusto Jose. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Oficina de CoordinaciĂłn Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de FĂ­sica de Buenos Aires. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de FĂ­sica de Buenos Aires; Argentin

    Work Measurement as a Generalized Quantum Measurement

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    Optimal finite-time heat engines under constrained control

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    We optimize finite-time stochastic heat engines with a periodically scaled Hamiltonian under experimentally motivated constraints on the bath temperature TT and the scaling parameter λ\lambda. We present a general geometric proof that maximum-efficiency protocols for TT and λ\lambda are piecewise constant, alternating between the maximum and minimum allowed values. When λ\lambda is restricted to a small range and the system is close to equilibrium at the ends of the isotherms, a similar argument shows that this protocol also maximizes output power. These results are valid for arbitrary dynamics. We illustrate them for an overdamped Brownian heat engine, which can experimentally be realized using optical tweezers with stiffness λ\lambda.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figure
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