2,759 research outputs found

    Comorbidities of patients in tiotropium clinical trials : comparison with observational studies of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Get PDF
    Acknowledgments The authors are fully responsible for all content and editorial decisions made, were involved at all stages of manuscript development, and have approved the final version for publication. Editorial assistance, supported financially by Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer, was provided by Godfrey Lisk of PAREXEL International during the preparation of this manuscript. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Donor species complement after liver xenotransplantation: The mechanism of protection from hyperacute rejection

    Get PDF
    Hamster hearts transplanted into stable rat recipients of hamster livers (OLT rats) were hyperacutely rejected after transfer with unaltered rat antihamster hyperimmune serum (HS). This was followed by immediate liver xenograft rejection in 4 of 5 rats. In contrast, simple heat inactivation of the rat HS resulted in prolonged survival of hamster hearts to 25 days without deterioration effect in the liver xenografts. This effect was species-specific because third-party mouse heart grafts in OLT rats were hyperacutely rejected in minutes if either active or heat inactivated antimouse HS was given. In cytotoxicity experiments, the complement in OLT serum produced weak lysis of hamster lymphocytes, while efficiently doing so with mouse cell targets. Because normal hamster serum caused no lysis at all of hamster target cells, the residual low-grade lysis of OLT serum was possibly being mediated by extrahepatic sources of rat C. In conclusion, the homology of C and target cells represents a mechanism of protection that the liver confers to other organs, and that is most easily seen in xenografts but may be allospecifically operational with allografts as well within the limits of MHC restriction. © 1994 by Williams and Wilkins

    Preliminary results of the Italian neutron experimental station INES at ISIS: Archaeometric applications

    Get PDF
    The INES project was sponsored by the CNR Neutron Spectroscopy Advisory Committee, stressing the importance of realizing an Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) at the world most powerful pulsed neutron source (ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK) and evidencing the strategic value that such a test station would assume in the field of applied sciences like, for example, chemistry, material science, Earth science, crystallography, and last, but not least, in the field of science applied to the study of cultural-heritage artifacts

    Preliminary results of the Italian neutron experimental station INES at ISIS: Archaeometric applications

    Get PDF
    The INES project was sponsored by the CNR Neutron Spectroscopy Advisory Committee, stressing the importance of realizing an Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) at the world most powerful pulsed neutron source (ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK) and evidencing the strategic value that such a test station would assume in the field of applied sciences like, for example, chemistry, material science, Earth science, crystallography, and last, but not least, in the field of science applied to the study of cultural-heritage artifacts

    Evolution of Conversations in the Age of Email Overload

    Full text link
    Email is a ubiquitous communications tool in the workplace and plays an important role in social interactions. Previous studies of email were largely based on surveys and limited to relatively small populations of email users within organizations. In this paper, we report results of a large-scale study of more than 2 million users exchanging 16 billion emails over several months. We quantitatively characterize the replying behavior in conversations within pairs of users. In particular, we study the time it takes the user to reply to a received message and the length of the reply sent. We consider a variety of factors that affect the reply time and length, such as the stage of the conversation, user demographics, and use of portable devices. In addition, we study how increasing load affects emailing behavior. We find that as users receive more email messages in a day, they reply to a smaller fraction of them, using shorter replies. However, their responsiveness remains intact, and they may even reply to emails faster. Finally, we predict the time to reply, length of reply, and whether the reply ends a conversation. We demonstrate considerable improvement over the baseline in all three prediction tasks, showing the significant role that the factors that we uncover play, in determining replying behavior. We rank these factors based on their predictive power. Our findings have important implications for understanding human behavior and designing better email management applications for tasks like ranking unread emails.Comment: 11 page, 24th International World Wide Web Conferenc
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore