327 research outputs found

    A study of production workflows, technology and hybrid printing models in small newspaper companies

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    During the past five to ten years, the evolution of different media, and especially Internet-related services, has had a direct impact on the printed newspaper. Companies that have remained stable for several years are today exploring and employing new mechanisms to increase efficiency while maintaining their audiences. Although web offset has been for long the basic production process for printing newspapers, the latest developments implemented in equipment and software for newspaper production have achieved a high degree of automation in prepress, press, and post-press. At the same time, the demand of younger audiences for increasingly diverse and personalized products—as well as the emergence of new services, such as the production of commercial printing jobs—has transformed the newspaper production model (Christensen, 2006). Small newspapers, as well as medium and large, are challenged to compete in this new environment. They have to plan for the future in accordance with their opportunities and limitations. The main purpose of this research was to define a descriptive profile and to represent a graphical workflow model for small newspaper production. Information on the degree of automation, equipment employed, and the extent to which production has adopted the hybrid model (semi-commercial production) are also included in this descriptive profile. The study consisted of seven newspapers with an average daily circulation between 12,000 and 50,000 copies. Six of the participants are located in the U.S., and one is located in Latin America. The main source of information was a survey consisting of demographic, circulation, audience, and production workflow questions. Additionally, the researcher conducted personal interviews and field tours at three of these newspapers. The key findings were: • For the majority of the respondents, the newspaper is between 21% and 38% of the total production (measured in total number of copies printed, including TMCs and commercial jobs). • Six of the seven participants have experienced a reduction in circulation during the past few years. In addition to this trend, the age of the core audience has increased, with the average between 50 to 64 years of age for most newspapers. • All of the respondents currently use coldset web offset as the production process. Two companies have plans to expand their facilities by acquiring equipment with heatset dryers and automatic functions. • In general, the respondents do not use a wide variety of finishing processes. The only post-press process used by all newspapers is inserting. In three cases, this is the only post-press process used. • The degree of automation found in the participants’ workflows is relatively low compared to the capabilities offered by printing equipment manufacturers. The stage of production that shows the highest level of automation is prepress. xi • The process that is most frequently a bottleneck is finishing. None of the respondents consider plate production or the press run to be bottlenecks in the workflow. • The majority of the participants responded that they have not implemented a process to ensure quality. It was also found that little information is collected within the respondents’ production processes. • The physical changes considered by the participants are mostly related to contraction of the core product. • All of the surveyed newspapers produce at least one kind of commercial job. The production of other newspapers and inserts are the two most common commercial jobs produced. The majority of the respondents only offer limited types of commercial jobs. • Although the two preferred strategies among the respondents are separating printing from publishing and consolidating printing facilities, there is no clear trend towards any specific strategy. Three of the newspapers stated that they have no specific business strategy for the near future

    Evaluación de proyectos de cooperación y desarrollo en África sobre servicios urbanos: actores, tecnologías e IDH en cuestión

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    El presente estudio se enmarca en el proyecto de investigación “Mecanismos de participación económica y de decisión en las obras proyectadas por la apropiación de las infraestructuras de acceso a los servicios urbanos. Comparativa de prácticas en ciudades africanas y latinoamericanas”, para países Africanos. Estos proyectos se encuentran en proceso de elaboración por parte del grupo de investigación GRECDH-Servicios Urbanos. Particularmente, el estudio puntualiza sobre trece (13) países subsaharianos y los treinta y nueve (39) proyectos relacionados, que fueron llevados a cabo durante los años 1990 y 2010. Esta tesina, se centra en la evaluación de los actores y las tecnologías para el desarrollo humano, y la incidencia del proyecto en la introducción de mecanismos de participación y de mejora del entorno a través de servicios urbanos, esto, para los treinta y nueve (39) proyectos de cooperación antes mencionados. El presente trabajo, se divide en cinco apartados principales. El primero de ellos aporta el marco teórico de la tesina. El segundo, presenta cada uno de los proyectos. El tercer apartado analiza a los actores y sus procesos participativos. La cuarta parte, presenta las diferentes tipologías de intervención según tipo de proyecto de cooperación para actores agrupados por ONG´s, agencias bilaterales, organismos multilaterales y la última parte analiza la correlación entre tipologías de proyectos por tecnologías de intervención, articulación de actores y niveles de IDH. En primer lugar, se definen una serie de conceptos que serán claves para comprender el marco teórico en que se basa este estudio. Se busca definir cómo la participación es uno de los elementos esenciales para el desarrollo humano sostenible y como ésta incide en los proyectos de cooperación analizados. Así mismo cómo la tecnología apropiada es fundamental en un proyecto de cooperación. En segundo lugar, cada uno de los proyectos estudiados se presenta mediante una ficha que describe, la tecnología y los actores que en él intervienen. Cada proyecto es, además, clasificado en una matriz GRECDH-Servicios Urbanos que permitirá mas adelante realizar los análisis y lograr los objetivos propuestos para esta tesina. A continuación, se analizan los actores y las relaciones existentes en cada uno de los proyectos. Mediante la aplicación de la metodología de Devas, será posible determinar en que nivel y como se relacionan los diferentes actores de un proyecto de cooperación, lo que permitirá conocer el tejido social, administrativo y político en que una intervención se enmarca. Conociendo a los actores y como se relacionan entre ellos, diferentes tipologías de intervención serán analizadas, agrupándolas según ONG, Organismo Multilateral, Agencia de cooperación, tipo de proyecto e IDH, con esto se pretende determinar patrones comunes de actuación según el criterio seleccionado. Finalmente, se buscan correlaciones entre tipologías de proyectos por tecnologías de intervención, articulación de actores y niveles de IDH. Esta tesina pretende aportar una visión global de las actuaciones e interrelaciones entre los diferentes actores que participan en un proyecto de cooperación, y ser una herramienta útil para futuras intervenciones.Aquest estudi s'emmarca en el projecte de recerca "Mecanismes de participació econòmica i de decisió en les obres projectades per l'apropiació de les infraestructures d'accés als serveis urbans. Comparativa de pràctiques en ciutats africanes i llatinoamericanes ", per a països africans. Aquests projectes es troben en procés d'elaboració per part del grup de recerca GRECDH-Serveis Urbans. Particularment, l'estudi puntualitza sobre tretze (13) països subsaharians i els trenta-nou (39) projectes relacionats, que van ser duts a terme durant els anys 1990 i 2010. Aquesta tesina se centra en l'avaluació dels actors i les tecnologies per al desenvolupament humà i la incidència del projecte en la introducció de mecanismes de participació i de millora de l'entorn a través de serveis urbans. Això, per els trenta-nou ( 39) projectes de cooperació abans esmentats. Aquest treball es divideix en cinc apartats principals. El primer d'ells aporta el marc teòric de la tesina. El segon presenta cada un dels projectes. El tercer apartat analitza els actors i els seus processos participatius. La quarta part presenta les diferents tipologies d'intervenció segons tipus de projecte de cooperació per actors agrupats per ONG, agències bilaterals, organismes multilaterals i l'última part analitza la correlació entre tipologies de projectes per tecnologies d'intervenció, articulació d'actors i nivells d'IDH. En primer lloc, es definiran una sèrie de conceptes que seran claus per comprendre el marc teòric en què es basa aquest estudi. Es busca definir com la participació és un dels elements essencials per al desenvolupament humà sostenible i com aquesta incideix en els projectes de cooperació analitzats. Així mateix com la tecnologia apropiada és fonamental en un projecte de cooperació. En segon lloc, cadascun dels projectes estudiats és presentat mitjançant una fitxa que descriu la tecnologia i els actors que hi intervenen. Cada projecte és, a més, classificat en una matriu GRECDH-Serveis Urbans que permetrà més endavant realitzar les anàlisis i aconseguir els objectius proposats per aquesta tesina. A continuació, s'analitzaran els actors i les relacions existents en cada un dels projectes. Mitjançant l'aplicació de la metodologia de Devas serà possible determinar en quin nivell i com es relacionen els diferents actors d'un projecte de cooperació, el que permetrà conèixer el teixit social, administratiu i polític en què una intervenció s'emmarca. Coneixent als actors i com es relacionen entre ells, diferents tipologies d'intervenció seran analitzades, agrupant-les segons ONG, Organisme Multilateral, Agència de cooperació, tipus de projecte i IDH. Amb això es pretén determinar patrons comuns d'actuació segons el criteri seleccionat. Finalment, es buscarien correlacions entre tipologies de projectes per tecnologies d'intervenció, articulació d'actors i nivells d'IDH. Aquesta tesina pretén aportar una visió global de les actuacions i interrelacions entre els diferents actors que participen en un projecte de cooperació i ser una eina útil per a futures intervencions.This study is part of the research project "Mechanisms of economic participation and decision-making in the works projected by the ownership of infrastructure for access to urban services. Comparison of practices in African and Latin American cities”, for African countries. These projects are being developed by the research group GRECDH-Urban Services. In particular, this study points out of thirteen (13) Sub-Saharan countries and thirty-nine (39) projects, which were conducted during 1990 and 2010. This research focuses on the evaluation of actors and technologies for human development and the project impact in the introduction of participatory mechanisms and the improvement of the surrounding through urban services, this, for thirty-nine ( 39) cooperation projects mentioned above. This project is divided into five main sections. The first provides the theoretical framework of the thesis. The second presents each of the projects. The third section analyzes the actors and the participatory processes. The fourth part presents the different types of intervention by type of cooperation project, for actors grouped by NGOs, bilateral agencies, multilateral agencies and the last part analyzes the correlation between projects typology for intervention technologies, actor’s articulations and IDH levels. First, it defined a set of concepts that are key point to understand the theoretical framework that underlying this study. It seeks to define how the participation is an essential element for sustainable human development and how this affects the cooperation projects analyzed. Also, how an appropriate technology is essential in a cooperation project. Second, each of the projects studied is presented through a card that describes the technology and the actors involved in it. Each project is, further classified in a matrix GRECDH-Urban Services that will carry out later the analysis and achieved the objectives for this thesis. Then for each project, the actors and the relationships between them are being analyzed. Applying the Devas methodology it is possible to determine at what level and how are related the different actors in a cooperative project, which will reveal the social, administrative and political context in which intervention is framed. Knowing the actors and how they are related between them, different types of intervention will be analyzed, grouped according to NGOs, Multilateral Cooperation Agency, project type and IDH, with this is intended to determine common patterns of action according to selected criteria. Finally, correlations are been seek between projects typologies, intervention technology, actors articulation and IDH levels. This project pretends to provide an overview of the actions and interrelations between different actors involved in a cooperation project, and be a useful tool for future interventions

    Estrategias educativas y aprendizaje significativo en los cursos de investigación para médicos residentes: una mirada desde la literatura

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    Background: The learning of critical appraisal of literature and research is fundamental in the training of resident physicians. Objective: to identify the educational strategies and categories of significant learning according to Fink’s taxonomy reflected in critical appraisal and research courses on resident physicians. Method: A review of reviews was carried out. MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and LILACS were searched without date or language restrictions. Citations were reviewed by two independent reviewers and disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. The overall quality of the evidence was evaluated using AMSTAR. The learning categories were classified according to Fink. Results: 14 systematic reviews were identified. Four reviews were rated as high quality, six as medium and four as low. The educational strategies most used were journal club, followed by seminars and workshop on evidence-based medicine. The most evaluated learnings were knowledge, application, the human dimension, and care. There is limited evidence on integration and learning to learn. Conclusions: Educational strategies are required that involve planning, application and evaluation focused on interaction of significant learning that promotes both cognitive and human learning of medical practice at research and critical appraisal of literature.Antecedentes: El aprendizaje de la apreciación crítica de la literatura e investigación es fundamental en la formación de los médicos residentes. Objetivo: identificar las estrategias educativas y las categorías de aprendizaje significativo según la taxonomía de Fink reflejadas en los cursos de bioestadística, epidemiología, investigación o medicina basada en la evidencia (MBE) en los programas de residencias médicas. Método: Se realizó una revisión de revisiones sistemáticas en MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y LILACS sin restricciones de tiempo o idioma. Las referencias fueron revisadas independientemente por dos evaluadores y los desacuerdos resueltos por un tercer evaluador. La evaluación de la calidad global de las revisiones fue hecha con la herramienta AMSTAR. Las categorías de aprendizaje se clasificaron según la taxonomía de Fink. Resultados: Se encontraron 14 revisiones sistemáticas; cuatro calificadas como de alta calidad, seis como de media y cuatro como de baja calidad. Las estrategias educativas más utilizadas fueron el club de revistas, seguida del seminario y taller sobre medicina basada en la evidencia Los aprendizajes más evaluados fueron los conocimientos, la aplicación, la dimensión humana y el cuidado. Hay evidencia limitada sobre la integración y el aprender a aprender. Conclusiones: Se requieren estrategias educativas que involucren la planeación, aplicación y evaluación enfocadas en la interacción de aprendizajes significativos que promueva tanto el aprendizaje cognitivo como la parte humana de la práctica médica en investigación y apreciación crítica de la literatura

    The good, the bad and the ugly: perceptions of wildlife in Tombali (Guinea-Bissau, West Africa)

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    Labels attributed to different species - ‘good' or ‘bad' - can provide clues about the underlying attitudes that may determine values applied to nonhumans. Understanding such values can guide community conservation approaches, such as assessing which animals might act as flagship species (biophilic), which are thought to be of use (utilitarian), or which are viewed with hostility (authoritarian). This paper considers how people from Cantanhez National Park (Tombali, Guinea-Bissau) perceive nonhumans in order to assess whether sociozoologic scales can access people's perceptions of biodiversity. We focus on chimpanzees as a potential flagship species for promoting forest conservation. Three hypotheses were considered: (i) A correlation between positive attitudes and edibility was expected for most species, except for chimpanzees that hold attributes other than those of utility; (ii) Chimpanzees were expected to be perceived as ‘similar to humans', which should produce positive perceptions; (iii) Perceptions reflect gender and religious differences. Women who encounter chimpanzees as crop-raiders will dislike and fear chimpanzees more than men while religion was expected to influence the degree of anthropocentrism. A survey of 257 villagers was conducted between February and March 2007. Photos of Guinean animals and one of a non-Guinean control species (N=27) were shown to subjects who were asked to apply adjectives such as ‘good', ‘bad', ‘edible', ‘inedible', ‘pretty', ‘ugly', among others, and then to rank the top three animals that most strongly represented each adjective. Descriptive statistical and principal component analyses were applied to these rankings. With the exception of some religious beliefs that protect chimpanzees from bushmeat exploitation - contributing to their inedibility - people perceived them as ugly and bad. Chimpanzees human resemblance has protected them from hunting pressure, but their tendency to raid the farms makes them vulnerable to the villagers' hostility. Authorities need to consider if chimpanzees are a good flagship, since attitudes towards this species were ambivalent

    Not dark yet for strong light-matter coupling to accelerate singlet fission dynamics

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    Polaritons are unique hybrid light-matter states that offer an alternative way to manipulate chemical processes. In this work, we show that singlet fission dynamics can be accelerated under strong light-matter coupling. For superexchange-mediated singlet fission, state mixing speeds up the dynamics in cavities when the lower polariton is close in energy to the multiexcitonic state. This effect is more pronounced in non-conventional singlet fission materials in which the energy gap between the bright singlet exciton and the multiexcitonic state is large (>0.1 eV). In this case, the dynamics is dominated by the polaritonic modes and not by the bare-molecule-like dark states, and, additionally, the resonant enhancement due to strong coupling is robust even for energetically broad molecular states. The present results provide a new strategy to expand the range of suitable materials for efficient singlet fission by making use of strong light-matter couplin

    Utilización de técnicas de andamiaje (scaffolding) en la enseñanza de habilidades receptivas en la lengua inglesa en dos liceos rurales de la provincia de Ñuble

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    This experimental study aims to analy- ze the use of scaffolding techniques on the teaching of receptive skills in stu- dents who are in the subject of English. The survey technique was used and the instrument was a type of Likert test. The test used was the TOEIC Bridge ((Test of English for International Communica- tion). The sample group was made up of 160 sophomore high school students belonging to two public rural schools in the province of Ñuble. The sample was non-probabilistic and the results indicate that the students improved their results on the standardized ministry of education test (MOE) in both receptive skills, and the hearing ability showed the greatest increase, after an improvement plan was carried out with the teachers and applied by them in the classroom. It can be concluded that on the basis of scaffolding techniques developed on common classroom acti- vities helped to improve student skills. These results suggest that the use of scaffolding techniques improve perfor- mance on standardized tests MOE.El presente estudio tiene por objetivo analizar el uso de las técnicas de anda- miaje sobre la enseñanza de las habili- dades receptivas en estudiantes de la asignatura de Inglés. El tipo de estudio fue experimental. Se utilizó la técnica de la encuesta y el instrumento utiliza- do fue un test tipo Likert. El test utiliza- do fue TOEIC Bridge (Test of English for International Communication). La muestra constó de 160 alumnos de se- gundo año medio de dos colegios mu- nicipalizados del área rural de la pro- vincia de Ñuble y fue no-probabilística. Los resultados indican que los alumnos mejoraron sus resultados del test es- tandarizado del Mineduc en ambas habilidades receptivas, siendo la habilidad auditiva la que mostró mayor incremen- to después de un plan de mejoramiento trabajado con los profesores y aplicado por estos en el aula. Se concluye que los alumnos incrementan los resultados en dos habilidades al haber aplicado técnicas de andamiaje en actividades comunes del aula. Estos resultados su- gieren que el uso de las técnicas de an- damiaje mejoran los resultados en las pruebas estandarizadas del Mineduc

    The role of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in apoptosis.

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    Lau Pui Ngan.Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2005.Includes bibliographical references (leaves 171-181).Abstracts in English and Chinese.Abstract --- p.i摘要 --- p.ivAcknowledgement --- p.viiAbbreviations --- p.viiiPublications Based on work in this thesis --- p.xiiChapter Chapter 1 --- Introduction and project overview --- p.1Chapter 1.1 --- Ghrelin structure and its synthesis --- p.3Chapter 1.2 --- Types of growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) --- p.6Chapter 1.3 --- Characterization of GHS-R --- p.7Chapter 1.3.1 --- Cloning of GHS-Rla and GHS-Rlb --- p.7Chapter 1.3.1.1 --- GHS-R subtypes --- p.7Chapter 1.3.1.2 --- Properties of GHS-R subtypes --- p.7Chapter 1.3.1.3 --- Evidence of non-GHS-Rla stimulated by ghrelin and GHSs --- p.9Chapter 1.3.1.4 --- Distribution of GHS-R --- p.10Chapter 1.3.2 --- Signal transduction pathways of GHS-R --- p.11Chapter 1.3.3 --- Comparison between human and seabream GHS-R --- p.12Chapter 1.4 --- Is adenosine a partial agonist at GHS-Rla? --- p.15Chapter 1.5 --- Physiological effects of ghrelin --- p.17Chapter 1.6 --- Apoptosis --- p.19Chapter 1.6.1 --- Introduction --- p.19Chapter 1.6.2 --- Apoptosis versus necrosis --- p.19Chapter 1.6.3 --- Mechanisms of apoptosis --- p.20Chapter 1.6.4 --- Methods to study apoptosis --- p.23Chapter 1.6.5 --- Different types of apoptotic inducers --- p.24Chapter 1.7 --- Apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways regulated by GPCRs --- p.27Chapter 1.7.1 --- Bcl-2 family pathway --- p.27Chapter 1.7.2 --- Caspase pathway --- p.27Chapter 1.7.3 --- ERK pathway --- p.28Chapter 1.7.4 --- PI3K/Akt pathway --- p.29Chapter Chapter 2 --- Materials and solutions --- p.31Chapter 2.1 --- Materials --- p.31Chapter 2.2 --- "Culture medium, buffer and solutions" --- p.37Chapter 2.2.1 --- Culture medium --- p.37Chapter 2.2.2 --- Buffers --- p.37Chapter 2.2.3 --- Solutions --- p.38Chapter Chapter 3 --- Methods --- p.41Chapter 3.1 --- Maintenance of cell lines --- p.41Chapter 3.1.1 --- Human Embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells --- p.41Chapter 3.1.2 --- HEK293 cells stably expressing black seabream growth hormone secretagogues receptors (HEK-sbGHS-Rla and HEK-sbGHS-Rlb) --- p.41Chapter 3.2 --- Preparation of plasmid DNA --- p.42Chapter 3.2.1 --- Preparation of competent E. coli --- p.42Chapter 3.2.2 --- Transformation of DNA into competent cells --- p.42Chapter 3.2.3 --- Small-scale and large-scale plasmid DNA preparation --- p.43Chapter 3.2.4 --- Confirmation of the purity and the identity of the plasmid DNA --- p.43Chapter 3.3 --- Transient transfection of mammalian cells --- p.45Chapter 3.4 --- Development of stable cell lines --- p.46Chapter 3.4.1 --- Determination of the optimum concentration of each antibiotic used in selection of clones --- p.46Chapter 3.4.2 --- Development of monoclonal stable cell line --- p.46Chapter 3.4.3 --- Confirmation the expression of 2myc-hGHS-Rla and myc-hGHS-Rlb --- p.48Chapter 3.5 --- Measurement of phospbolipase C activity --- p.49Chapter 3.5.1 --- Introduction --- p.49Chapter 3.5.2 --- Preparation of columns --- p.49Chapter 3.5.3 --- [3 H]-inositol phosphate assay --- p.49Chapter 3.5.4 --- Measurement of [3H]-inositol phosphates production --- p.50Chapter 3.5.5 --- Data analysis --- p.50Chapter 3.6 --- Determination of transient transfection efficiency --- p.51Chapter 3.7 --- Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) --- p.52Chapter 3.7.1 --- RNA extraction and first strand cDNA production --- p.52Chapter 3.7.2 --- PCR and visualization of amplicons --- p.52Chapter 3.7.3 --- Real-time PCR --- p.59Chapter 3.7.3.1 --- Construction of standard curve --- p.60Chapter 3.7.3.2 --- Data analysis --- p.60Chapter 3.8 --- Measurement of caspase-3 activity --- p.65Chapter 3.8.1 --- Determination of caspase-3 activity using colorimetric assay --- p.65Chapter 3.8.1.1 --- Introduction --- p.65Chapter 3.8.1.2 --- Induction of apoptosis --- p.65Chapter 3.8.1.3 --- Preparation of cell lysates --- p.65Chapter 3.8.1.4 --- Quantification of caspase-3 activity by measuring pNA absorbance --- p.66Chapter 3.8.1.5 --- Data analysis --- p.67Chapter 3.8.2 --- Determination of caspase-3 activity using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET2) assay --- p.67Chapter 3.8.2.1 --- Introduction --- p.67Chapter 3.8.2.2 --- Quantification of caspase-3 activity using BRET2 assay --- p.68Chapter 3.8.2.3 --- Data analysis --- p.69Chapter 3.8.3 --- Determination of caspase-3 activity using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FERT) assay --- p.70Chapter 3.8.3.1 --- Introduction --- p.70Chapter 3.8.3.2 --- Quantification of caspase-3 activity using FRET assay --- p.70Chapter 3.8.3.3 --- Data analysis --- p.71Chapter Chapter 4 --- Results --- p.72Chapter 4.1 --- Characterization of GHS-R --- p.72Chapter 4.1.1 --- Properties of GHS-Rla --- p.72Chapter 4.1.1.1 --- Constitutively active receptor --- p.72Chapter 4.1.1.2 --- Characterization of epitope-tagged hGHS-Rla --- p.73Chapter 4.1.2 --- Properties of GHS-Rlb --- p.75Chapter 4.1.3 --- Conclusions --- p.75Chapter 4.2 --- Effect of co-transfection of HEK293 cells --- p.85Chapter 4.2.1 --- Effect of balancing DNA concentrations transfected into HEK293 cells --- p.85Chapter 4.2.2 --- Effect of balancing DNA concentration using another Gq-coupled receptor --- p.87Chapter 4.2.3 --- Effect of Gi- and Gs-coupled receptor on GHS-Rla signaling --- p.88Chapter 4.2.4 --- Potentiating effect of co-transfection appeared using different transfection reagents --- p.88Chapter 4.2.5 --- Co-transfection improves transfection efficiency --- p.89Chapter 4.2.6 --- Discussions --- p.91Chapter 4.3 --- Development of cell lines stably expressing hGHS-Rla or hGHS-Rlb --- p.102Chapter 4.3.1 --- Advantages of using a monoclonal cell line --- p.102Chapter 4.3.2 --- Sensitivity of HEK293 cells to antibiotics --- p.102Chapter 4.3.3 --- Production of polyclonal stable cell line --- p.103Chapter 4.3.4 --- Monoclonal stable cell line selection --- p.104Chapter 4.3.5 --- Discussions --- p.105Chapter 4.4 --- Effect of adenosine on GHS-Rla signaling --- p.111Chapter 4.4.1 --- Adenosine acts as partial agonist --- p.111Chapter 4.4.2 --- Effect of substance P analog on adenosine-mediated GHS-Rla signaling --- p.112Chapter 4.4.3 --- Effect of adenosine deaminase (ADA) on adenosine- and ghrelin-stimulated GHS-Rla signaling --- p.113Chapter 4.4.4 --- Specificity of ADA --- p.115Chapter 4.4.5 --- Conclusions --- p.116Chapter 4.5 --- Role of GHS-R in apoptosis --- p.124Chapter 4.5.1 --- Different methods to measure caspase-3 activity --- p.124Chapter 4.5.1.1 --- Colorimetric assay --- p.124Chapter 4.5.1.1.1 --- Time course for staurosporine and etoposide in HEK293 cells --- p.125Chapter 4.5.1.1.2 --- Effect of 2myc-hGHS-Rla on staurosporine- and etoposide-induced caspase-3 activity --- p.127Chapter 4.5.1.1.3 --- Time course for staurosporine and etoposide in sbGHS-R monoclonal stable cell line --- p.128Chapter 4.5.1.1.4 --- Effect of sbGHS-Rs on staurosporine- and etoposide- induced caspase-3 activityin HEK 293 cells --- p.129Chapter 4.5.1.1.5 --- Effect of sbGHS-Rs on staurosporine- induced caspase-3 activity in sbGHS-R monoclonal stable cell line --- p.130Chapter 4.5.1.1.6 --- Differences between epitope-tagged and non-tagged sbGHS-Rs in staurosporine- induced caspase-3 activity --- p.131Chapter 4.5.1.1.7 --- The role of epitope-tagged sbGHS-Rlbin staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activity --- p.132Chapter 4.5.1.1.8 --- Effect of staurosporine and etoposide on GHS-Rla signaling --- p.133Chapter 4.5.1.2 --- BRET2 assay --- p.135Chapter 4.5.1.3 --- FRET assay --- p.136Chapter 4.5.1.4 --- Conclusions --- p.136Chapter 4.6 --- Determination of GHS-R amount in terms of mRNA --- p.155Chapter 4.6.1 --- Determination of GHS-R amount in stable cell lines --- p.155Chapter 4.6.2 --- Transfected DNA amount match with stable cell lines --- p.155Chapter Chapter 5 --- "Discussion, Conclusions and Future Plan" --- p.159Chapter 5.1 --- General Discussion and Conclusions --- p.159Chapter 5.2 --- Future Plan and Experimental Design --- p.168References --- p.17

    Gestión por competencias, sistemas de compensación y clima organizacional: -marco de acción gerencial en empresa comercializadora y distribuidora de productos de Belleza-

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    Artículo de revisión con pretensiones de análisis selectivo y crítico de acervos prácticos, teóricos e investigativos, en torno a la concepción del talento humano y la posible incidencia que representa para su efectividad organizacional y desarrollo, procesos asociados a su selección, vinculación organizacional y sistemas de retribución económica y emocional, entre otros. Para ello, por medio de la aplicación de Test de clima laboral y estudio de documentos empresariales del área de Talento Humano, fueron analizadas en contexto organizacional las categorías de Sistemas de compensación, Clima organizacional y Gestión del Talento Humano por competencias; este último como principal eje de mediación, al relacionarse con acciones y políticas que al no ser convergentes con la delimitación de manuales de funciones y sistemas de compensación que involucren activamente al trabajador, influyen de manera negativa en el clima organizacional, la creación de valor y demás objetivos de connotación económica y social de una organización. En ese orden de ideas, se hace alusión de igual modo a otros modelos de visualización de los componentes tríadicos que se convocan –Gestión por Competencias, Sistemas de Compensación y Clima Organizacional-, con la finalidad de abogar por la problematización de su relación al interior del contexto organizacional elegido; señalándose la pertinencia de replantear dinámicas y acciones propias al área de Talento Humano, en un trabajo reflexivo que conduzca a su gestión por competencias, provecho potencial de sistemas de compensación afines con tal gestión, y fortalecimiento del clima organizacional en el marco de la bidireccionalidad de la relación entre gremio empresarial y colaborador, para efectividad, desarrollo y productividad de ambos.Revision article with the pretense of selective and critical analisis of a practical, theoretical and investigative collections, around the conception of human talent and possible incidence that it represents for its organizational and developmental efectivity, selection related processes, organizational vinculation and economic and emotional retribution systems, amongst others. For this, through the application of working climate survey and study of bussiness documents on the area of Human Talent, the categories of Compensation Systems, Organizational Climate and Human Talent Management were analized under an organizational context by competence; The latter as a main axis of mediation, by relating with actions and politics that by not being convergent with the delimitation of manual functions and compensations systems that involve the worker actively, they influence negatively on the organizational climate, the creation of value and other objectives of economic and social connotations of an organization. In this order of ideas, an allusion is made in the same manner to other visualization models of the triadic components that are mentioned - Management by Competence, Compensation Systems and Organizational Climate -, with the purpose of pleading for the problematization of its relation at the core of the chosen organizational context; Pointing out the pertinence of rethinking dynamics and proper actions to the Human Talent area, in a reflective work that drives its management by competence, potential profit of the compensation systems related with the management, and fortifying the organizational climate on the bidirectionality of the relation between the empresarial and collaborator guild framework, for each others efectivity, developmente and productivity

    Variabilità dell'olio essenziale di <i>Thymus herba-barona</i> Loisel e sue proprietà  antibatteriche

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    La Famiglia delle Labiatae include 350 specie di cui 66 vivono spontanee in Europa in particolare in Sardegna è da annoverare la presenza di un endemismo Sardo-Corso, Thymus herbabarona Loisel. Di questa pianta è stata studiata la composizione dell'olio essenziale e la sua variabilità  prendendo in considerazione varie stazioni del nord Sardegna. Le analisi sono state effettuate sia via Gas-massa che NMR. Da un primo studio si nota che sono presenti fondamentalmente due chemotipi uno a carvacrolo e l'altro a timolo tra questi il più diffuso è il chemotipo a carvacrolo sostanza presente in una concentrazione superiore al 70% con solo tracce di timolo mentre il chemotipo a timolo (29%) presenta anche una buona percentuale di carvacrolo (26%)
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