171 research outputs found

    Mass hierarchy sensitivity of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors

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    We report the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) sensitivity of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors. Sensitivity of determining the MH can be significantly improved by adding a near detector and combining both the near and far detectors. The size of the sensitivity improvement is related to accuracy of the individual mass-splitting measurements and requires strict control on the relative energy scale uncertainty of the near and far detectors. We study the impact of both baseline and target mass of the near detector on the combined sensitivity. A figure-of-merit is defined to optimize the baseline and target mass of the near detector and the optimal selections are \sim13~km and \sim4~kton respectively for a far detector with the 20~kton target mass and 52.5~km baseline. As typical examples of future medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments, the optimal location and target mass of the near detector are selected for JUNO and RENO-50. Finally, we discuss distinct effects of the neutrino spectrum uncertainty for setups of a single detector and double detectors, which indicate that the spectrum uncertainty can be well constrained in the presence of the near detector.Comment: 7 pages, 9 figure

    A New Optical Model for Photomultiplier Tubes

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    It is critical to construct an accurate optical model of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in many applications to describe the angular and spectral responses of the photon detection efficiency (PDE) of the PMTs in their working media. In this study, we propose a new PMT optical model to describe both light interactions with the PMT window and optical processes inside PMTs with reasonable accuracy based on the optics theory and a GEANT4-based simulation toolkit. The proposed model builds a relationship between the PDE and the underlying processes that the PDE relies on. This model also provides a tool to transform the PDE measured in one working medium (like air) to the PDE in other media (like water, liquid scintillator, etc). Using two 20" MCP-PMTs and one 20" dynode PMT, we demonstrate a complete procedure to obtain the key parameters used in the model from experimental data, such as the optical properties of the antireflective coating and photocathode of the three PMTs. The proposed model can effectively reproduce the angular responses of the quantum efficiency of PMTs, even though an ideally uniform photocathode is assumed in the model. Interestingly, the proposed model predicts a similar level (20%30%20\%\sim30\%) of light yield excess observed in the experimental data of many liquid scintillator-based neutrino detectors, compared with that predicted at the stage of detector design. However, this excess has never been explained, and the proposed PMT model provides a good explanation for it, which highlights the imperfections of PMT models used in their detector simulations

    Detector optimization to reduce the cosmogenic neutron backgrounds in the TAO experiment

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    Short-baseline reactor antineutrino experiments with shallow overburden usually have large cosmogenic neutron backgrounds. The Taishan Antineutrino Observatory (TAO) is a ton-level liquid scintillator detector located at about 30 m from a core of the Taishan Nuclear Power Plant. It will measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum with high precision and high energy resolution to provide a reference spectrum for JUNO and other reactor antineutrino experiments, and provide a benchmark measurement to test nuclear databases. Background is one of the critical concerns of TAO since the overburden is just 10 meter-water-equivalent. The cosmogenic neutron background was estimated to be ~10% of signals. With detailed Monte Carlo simulations, we propose several measures in this work to reduce the neutron backgrounds, including doping Gadolinium in the buffer liquid, adding a polyethylene layer above the bottom lead shield, and optimization of the veto strategy. With these improvements, the neutron background-to-signal ratio can be reduced to ~2%, and might be further suppressed with pulse shape discrimination.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

    Development of silicon interposer: towards an ultralow radioactivity background photodetector system

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    It is of great importance to develop a photodetector system with an ultralow radioactivity background in rare event searches. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are two ideal candidates for low background photosensors and readout electronics, respectively, because they are mainly composed of silicon, which can achieve good radio-purity without considerable extra effort. However, interposers, used to provide mechanical support and signal routes between the photosensor and the electronics, are a bottleneck in building ultralow background photodetectors. Silicon and quartz are two candidates to construct the low background interposer because of their good radio-purity; nevertheless, it is non-trivial to produce through silicon vias (TSV) or through quartz vias (TQV) on the large area silicon or quartz wafer. In this work, based on double-sided TSV interconnect technology, we developed the first prototype of a silicon interposer with a size of 10~cm×\times10~cm and a thickness of 320~μ\mum. The electrical properties of the interposer are carefully evaluated at room temperature, and its performance is also examined at -110~^\circC with an integrated SiPM on the interposer. The testing results reveal quite promising performance of the prototype, and the single photoelectron signals can be clearly observed from the SiPM. The features of the observed signals are comparable with those from the SiPM mounted on a normal FR4-based PCB. Based on the success of the silicon interposer prototype, we started the follow-up studies that aimed to further improve the performance and yield of the silicon interposer, and eventually to provide a solution for building an ultralow background photodetector system
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