6,016 research outputs found

    Accretion Disks Around Young Objects. III. Grain Growth

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    We present detailed models of irradiated T Tauri disks including dust grain growth with power-law size distributions. The models assume complete mixing between dust and gas and solve for the vertical disk structure self-consistentlyincluding the heating effects of stellar irradiation as well as local viscous heating. For a given total dust mass, grain growth is found to decrease the vertical height of the surface where the optical depth to the stellar radiation becomes unit and thus the local irradiation heating, while increasing the disk emission at mm and sub-mm wavelengths. The resulting disk models are less geometrically thick than our previous models assuming interstellar medium dust, and agree better with observed spectral energy distributions and images of edge-on disks, like HK Tau/c and HH 30. The implications of models with grain growth for determining disk masses from long-wavelength emission are considered.Comment: 29 pages, including 11 figures and 1 table, APJ accepte

    Wavelet versus Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of multifractal structures

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    We perform a comparative study of applicability of the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) and the Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method in proper detecting of mono- and multifractal character of data. We quantify the performance of both methods by using different sorts of artificial signals generated according to a few well-known exactly soluble mathematical models: monofractal fractional Brownian motion, bifractal Levy flights, and different sorts of multifractal binomial cascades. Our results show that in majority of situations in which one does not know a priori the fractal properties of a process, choosing MFDFA should be recommended. In particular, WTMM gives biased outcomes for the fractional Brownian motion with different values of Hurst exponent, indicating spurious multifractality. In some cases WTMM can also give different results if one applies different wavelets. We do not exclude using WTMM in real data analysis, but it occurs that while one may apply MFDFA in a more automatic fashion, WTMM has to be applied with care. In the second part of our work, we perform an analogous analysis on empirical data coming from the American and from the German stock market. For this data both methods detect rich multifractality in terms of broad f(alpha), but MFDFA suggests that this multifractality is poorer than in the case of WTMM.Comment: substantially extended version, to appear in Phys.Rev.

    Disk evolution in the Ori OB1 association

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    We analyze multi-band photometry of a subsample of low mass stars in the associations Ori OB1a and 1b discovered during the CIDA Orion Variability Survey, which have ages of 7 - 10 Myr and 3 - 5 Myr, respectively. We obtained UBVRcIc photometry at Mt. Hopkins for 6 Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) and 26 Weak T Tauri stars (WTTS) in Ori OB1a, and for 21 CTTS and 2 WTTS in Ori OB1b. We also obtained L band photometry for 14 CTTS at Mt. Hopkins, and 10um and 18um photometry with OSCIR at Gemini for 6 CTTS; of these, all 6 were detected at 10um while only one was detected at 18um. We estimate mass accretion rates from the excess luminosity at U, and find that they are consistent with determinations for a number of other associations, with or without high mass star formation. The observed decrease of mass accretion rate with age is qualitatively consistent with predictions of viscous evolution of accretion disks. We find an overall decrease of disk emission from Taurus to Ori OB1b to Ori OB1a. This decrease implies that significant grain growth and settling towards the midplane has taken place in the inner disks of Ori OB1. We compare the SED of the star detected at both 10um and 18um with disk models for similar stellar and accretion parameters. We find that the low <= 18 um fluxes of this Ori OB1b star cannot be due to the smaller disk radius expected from viscous evolution in the presence of the FUV radiation fields from the OB stars in the association. Instead, we find that the disk of this star is essentially a flat disk, with little if any flaring, indicating a a significant degree of dust settling towards the midplane, as expected from dust evolution in protoplanetary disks.Comment: 35 pages, 11 figures, to appear in the Astronomical Journal. Full resolution figures in http://www.cida.ve/~briceno/publications

    Quantitative features of multifractal subtleties in time series

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    Based on the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) and on the Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) methods we investigate the origin of multifractality in the time series. Series fluctuating according to a qGaussian distribution, both uncorrelated and correlated in time, are used. For the uncorrelated series at the border (q=5/3) between the Gaussian and the Levy basins of attraction asymptotically we find a phase-like transition between monofractal and bifractal characteristics. This indicates that these may solely be the specific nonlinear temporal correlations that organize the series into a genuine multifractal hierarchy. For analyzing various features of multifractality due to such correlations, we use the model series generated from the binomial cascade as well as empirical series. Then, within the temporal ranges of well developed power-law correlations we find a fast convergence in all multifractal measures. Besides of its practical significance this fact may reflect another manifestation of a conjectured q-generalized Central Limit Theorem