632 research outputs found

    Non-invasive prenatal diagnostic test accuracy for fetal sex using cell-free DNA a review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) can be detected in maternal blood during pregnancy, opening the possibility of early non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for a variety of genetic conditions. Since 1997, many studies have examined the accuracy of prenatal fetal sex determination using cffDNA, particularly for pregnancies at risk of an X-linked condition. Here we report a review and meta-analysis of the published literature to evaluate the use of cffDNA for prenatal determination (diagnosis) of fetal sex. We applied a sensitive search of multiple bibliographic databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, the Cochrane library and Web of Science. Results: Ninety studies, incorporating 9,965 pregnancies and 10,587 fetal sex results met our inclusion criteria. Overall mean sensitivity was 96.6% (95% credible interval 95.2% to 97.7%) and mean specificity was 98.9% (95% CI = 98.1% to 99.4%). These results vary very little with trimester or week of testing, indicating that the performance of the test is reliably high. Conclusions: Based on this review and meta-analysis we conclude that fetal sex can be determined with a high level of accuracy by analyzing cffDNA. Using cffDNA in prenatal diagnosis to replace or complement existing invasive methods can remove or reduce the risk of miscarriage. Future work should concentrate on the economic and ethical considerations of implementing an early non-invasive test for fetal sex

    A Mutation in Intracellular Loop 4 Affects the Drug-Efflux Activity of the Yeast Multidrug Resistance ABC Transporter Pdr5p

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    Multidrug resistance protein Pdr5p is a yeast ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the plasma membrane. It confers multidrug resistance by active efflux of intracellular drugs. However, the highly polymorphic Pdr5p from clinical strain YJM789 loses its ability to expel azole and cyclohexmide. To investigate the role of amino acid changes in this functional change, PDR5 chimeras were constructed by segmental replacement of homologous BY4741 PDR5 fragments. Functions of PDR5 chimeras were evaluated by fluconazole and cycloheximide resistance assays. Their expression, ATPase activity, and efflux efficiency for other substrates were also analyzed. Using multiple lines of evidence, we show that an alanine-to-methionine mutation at position 1352 located in the predicted short intracellular loop 4 significantly contributes to the observed transport deficiency. The degree of impairment is likely correlated to the size of the mutant residue

    Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Three Tetrahymena Species Reveals Mutation Hot Spots and Accelerated Nonsynonymous Substitutions in Ymf Genes

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    The ciliate Tetrahymena, a model organism, contains divergent mitochondrial (Mt) genome with unusual properties, where half of its 44 genes still remain without a definitive function. These genes could be categorized into two major groups of KPC (known protein coding) and Ymf (genes without an identified function). To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying gene divergence and molecular evolution of Tetrahymena (T.) Mt genomes, we sequenced three Mt genomes of T.paravorax, T.pigmentosa, and T.malaccensis. These genomes were aligned and the analyses were carried out using several programs that calculate distance, nucleotide substitution (dn/ds), and their rate ratios (ω) on individual codon sites and via a sliding window approach. Comparative genomic analysis indicated a conserved putative transcription control sequence, a GC box, in a region where presumably transcription and replication initiate. We also found distinct features in Mt genome of T.paravorax despite similar genome organization among these ∼47 kb long linear genomes. Another significant finding was the presence of at least one or more highly variable regions in Ymf genes where majority of substitutions were concentrated. These regions were mutation hotspots where elevated distances and the dn/ds ratios were primarily due to an increase in the number of nonsynonymous substitutions, suggesting relaxed selective constraint. However, in a few Ymf genes, accelerated rates of nonsynonymous substitutions may be due to positive selection. Similarly, on protein level the majority of amino acid replacements occurred in these regions. Ymf genes comprise half of the genes in Tetrahymena Mt genomes, so understanding why they have not been assigned definitive functions is an important aspect of molecular evolution. Importantly, nucleotide substitution types and rates suggest possible reasons for not being able to find homologues for Ymf genes. Additionally, comparative genomic analysis of complete Mt genomes is essential in identifying biologically significant motifs such as control regions

    Disparities and risks of sexually transmissible infections among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis and data synthesis.

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    BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including Hepatitis B and C virus, are emerging public health risks in China, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aims to assess the magnitude and risks of STIs among Chinese MSM. METHODS: Chinese and English peer-reviewed articles were searched in five electronic databases from January 2000 to February 2013. Pooled prevalence estimates for each STI infection were calculated using meta-analysis. Infection risks of STIs in MSM, HIV-positive MSM and male sex workers (MSW) were obtained. This review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was registered in PROSPERO. RESULTS: Eighty-eight articles (11 in English and 77 in Chinese) investigating 35,203 MSM in 28 provinces were included in this review. The prevalence levels of STIs among MSM were 6.3% (95% CI: 3.5-11.0%) for chlamydia, 1.5% (0.7-2.9%) for genital wart, 1.9% (1.3-2.7%) for gonorrhoea, 8.9% (7.8-10.2%) for hepatitis B (HBV), 1.2% (1.0-1.6%) for hepatitis C (HCV), 66.3% (57.4-74.1%) for human papillomavirus (HPV), 10.6% (6.2-17.6%) for herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) and 4.3% (3.2-5.8%) for Ureaplasma urealyticum. HIV-positive MSM have consistently higher odds of all these infections than the broader MSM population. As a subgroup of MSM, MSW were 2.5 (1.4-4.7), 5.7 (2.7-12.3), and 2.2 (1.4-3.7) times more likely to be infected with chlamydia, gonorrhoea and HCV than the broader MSM population, respectively. CONCLUSION: Prevalence levels of STIs among MSW were significantly higher than the broader MSM population. Co-infection of HIV and STIs were prevalent among Chinese MSM. Integration of HIV and STIs healthcare and surveillance systems is essential in providing effective HIV/STIs preventive measures and treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO NO: CRD42013003721

    Inter-domain Communication Mechanisms in an ABC Importer: A Molecular Dynamics Study of the MalFGK2E Complex

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    ATP-Binding Cassette transporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that convert the energy from ATP-binding and hydrolysis into conformational changes of the transmembrane region to allow the translocation of substrates against their concentration gradient. Despite the large amount of structural and biochemical data available for this family, it is still not clear how the energy obtained from ATP hydrolysis in the ATPase domains is “transmitted” to the transmembrane domains. In this work, we focus our attention on the consequences of hydrolysis and inorganic phosphate exit in the maltose uptake system (MalFGK2E) from Escherichia coli. The prime goal is to identify and map the structural changes occurring during an ATP-hydrolytic cycle. For that, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations to study three potential intermediate states (with 10 replicates each): an ATP-bound, an ADP plus inorganic phosphate-bound and an ADP-bound state. Our results show that the residues presenting major rearrangements are located in the A-loop, in the helical sub-domain, and in the “EAA motif” (especially in the “coupling helices” region). Additionally, in one of the simulations with ADP we were able to observe the opening of the NBD dimer accompanied by the dissociation of ADP from the ABC signature motif, but not from its corresponding P-loop motif. This work, together with several other MD studies, suggests a common communication mechanism both for importers and exporters, in which ATP-hydrolysis induces conformational changes in the helical sub-domain region, in turn transferred to the transmembrane domains via the “coupling helices”
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