848 research outputs found

    X-Ray Evidence for Multiphase Hot Gas with Nearly Solar Fe Abundances in the Brightest Groups of Galaxies

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    We analyze the ASCA spectra accumulated within ~100 kpc radii of 12 of the brightest groups of galaxies. Upon fitting isothermal models (1T) jointly to the ASCA SIS and GIS spectra we obtain fits for most groups that are of poor or at best marginal quality and give very sub-solar metallicities similar to previous studies, = 0.29 +/- 0.12 Z_sun. Two-temperature models (2T) provide significantly better fits for 11 out of the 12 groups and in every case have metallicities that are substantially larger than obtained for the 1T models, = 0.75 +/- 0.24 Z_sun. Although not very well constrained, for most of the groups absorption in excess of the Galactic value is indicated for the cooler temperature component of the 2T models. A simple multiphase cooling flow model gives results analogous to the 2T models including large metallicities, = 0.65 +/- 0.17 Z_sun. The nearly solar Fe abundances and also solar alpha/Fe ratios indicated by the 2T and cooling flow models are consistent with models of the chemical enrichment of ellipticals, groups, and clusters which assume ratios of Type Ia to Type II supernova and an IMF similar to those of the Milky Way. Thus, we have shown that the very sub-solar Fe abundances and Si/Fe enhancements obtained from most previous studies within r ~100 kpc of galaxy groups are an artifact of their fitting isothermal models to the X-ray spectra which also has been recently demonstrated for the brightest elliptical galaxies. Owing to the importance of these results for interpreting X-ray spectra, in an appendix we use simulated ASCA observations to examine in detail the ``Fe bias'' and ``Si bias'' associated with the spectral fitting of ellipticals, groups, and clusters of galaxies.Comment: 26 pages (6 figures), To Appear in MNRAS. Revised version contains more discussion of abundance gradients (see new section 4.1

    The isolated elliptical NGC 4555 observed with Chandra

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    We present analysis of a Chandra observation of the elliptical galaxy NGC 4555. The galaxy lies in a very low density environment, either isolated from all galaxies of similar mass or on the outskirts of a group. Despite this, NGC 4555 has a large gaseous halo, extending to ~60 kpc. We find the mean gas temperature to be ~0.95 keV and the Iron abundance to be ~0.5 solar. We model the surface brightness, temperature and abundance distribution of the halo and use these results to estimate parameters such as the entropy and cooling time of the gas, and the total gravitational mass of the galaxy. In contrast to recent results showing that moderate luminosity ellipticals contain relatively small quantities of dark matter, our results show that NGC 4555 has a massive dark halo and large mass-to-light ratio (56.8 [+34.2,-35.8] solar at 50 kpc, 42.7 [+14.6,-21.2] solar at 5 effective radii, 1 sigma errors). We discuss this disparity and consider possible mechanisms by which galaxies might reduce their dark matter content.Comment: 10 pages, 7 postscript figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Omega_0 and Substructure in Galaxy Clusters

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    (Abridged) We examine the theoretical relationship between Omega_0 and substructure in galaxy clusters which are formed by the collapse of high density peaks in a gaussian random field. The radial mass distributions of the clusters are computed from the spherical accretion model using the adiabatic approximation following Ryden & Gunn. For a cluster of mass, M(r,t), we compute the quantity dM/M_bar at a cosmic time t and within a radius r, where dM is the accreted mass and M_bar is the average mass of the cluster during the previous relaxation time, which is computed individually for each cluster. For a real cluster in three dimensions we argue that dM/M_bar should be strongly correlated with the low order multipole ratios, Phi^{int}_l/Phi^{int}_0, of the potential due to matter interior to r. It is shown that the expected correlation between dM/M_bar and Phi^{int}_l/Phi^{int}_0 extends to the two-dimensional multipole ratios, Psi^{int}_m/Psi^{int}_0, which are well defined observables of the cluster density distribution. The strongest dependence of dM/M_bar on Omega_0 (lambda_0=0) occurs at z=0 where dM/M_bar propto Omega_0^{1/2} for relaxation times ~1-2 crossing times and only very weakly depends on mass and radius. The fractional accreted mass in CDM models with Omega_0+lambda_0=1 depends very weakly on Omega_0 and has a magnitude similar to the Omega_0=1 value. dM/M_bar evolves more rapidly with redshift in low-density universes and decreases significantly with radius for Omega_0=1 models for z > ~0.5. We discuss how to optimize constraints on Omega_0 and lambda_0 using cluster morphologies.Comment: 18 pages (11 figures), Accepted for publication in MNRAS. In revised version a new section 2.2 describes how to infer the fractional accreted mass (and hence Omega_0) from observation

    X-Ray Emission Line Ratios and Multiphase Gas in Elliptical Galaxies and Galaxy Clusters

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    We examine the K shell emission lines produced by isothermal and simple multiphase models of the hot gas in elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters to determine the most effective means for constraining the width of the differential emission measure (xi(T)) in these systems which we characterize by a dimensionless parameter, sigma_xi. Comparison of line ratios of two-temperature (sigma_xi << 1) and cooling flow (sigma_xi ~1) models is presented in detail. We find that a two-temperature model can approximate very accurately a cooling flow spectrum over 0.5-10 keV. We have re-analyzed the ASCA spectra of three of the brightest galaxy clusters to assess the evidence for multiphase gas in their cores: M87 (Virgo), the Centaurus cluster, and the Perseus cluster. K-alpha emission line blends of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe are detected in each system as is significant Fe K-beta emission. The Fe K-beta/K-alpha ratios are consistent with optically thin plasma models and do not suggest resonance scattering in these systems. Consideration of both the ratios of H-like to He-like K-alpha lines and the local continuum temperatures clearly rules out isothermal gas in each case. To obtain more detailed constraints we fitted plasma models over 1.6-9 keV where the emission is dominated by these K shell lines and by continuum. In each case the ASCA spectra cannot determine whether the gas emits at only two temperatures or over a continuous range of temperatures as expected for a cooling flow. The metal abundances are near solar for all of the multiphase models. We discuss the implications of these results and examine the prospects for determining the temperature structure in these systems with upcoming X-ray missions.Comment: 30 pages (18 figures), To Appear in MNRAS. Major revision of the initially posted version: (1) The section on ASCA data of ellipticals was expanded and moved to astro-ph/9811080; (2) The ASCA data of M87, Centaurus, and Perseus have been re-analyzed. We find evidence for Fe K-beta emission in these systems, but the Fe K-beta/K-alpha ratios do not suggest resonance scattering; (3) The metal abundances of the cores of these systems are consistent with the meteoritic solar value

    Deconvolution of ASCA X-ray data: I. Spectral-imaging method

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    In this paper we describe a self-contained method for performing the spectral-imaging deconvolution of X-ray data on clusters of galaxies observed by the ASCA satellite. Spatially-resolved spectral studies of data from this satellite require such a correction because its optics redistribute photons over regions which are of comparable size to the angular scales of interest in clusters. This scattering is a function not only of spatial position but also energy. To perform a correction for these effects we employ Maximum-Likelihood deconvolution of the image (within energy bands of 1 keV) to determine the spatial redistribution, followed by a Monte-Carlo energy reassignment of photon energies with position to determine the spectral redistribution. We present tests on simulated cluster data, convolved with the various instrumental characteristics and the X-ray background, which show that our methodology can successfully recover a variety of intrinsic temperature profiles in typical observational circumstances. In Paper-II we apply our spectral-imaging deconvolution procedure to a large sample of galaxy clusters to determine temperature profiles, some of which will be used in subsequent mass determinations, presented in Paper-III.Comment: MNRAS, accepted. Paper and single page postscript copies of each test's radial profile are available on: http://www-xray.ast.cam.ac.uk/~daw

    X-ray Constraints on the Intrinsic Shape of the Lenticular Galaxy NGC 1332

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    We have analyzed ROSAT PSPC X-ray data of the optically elongated S0 galaxy NGC 1332 with the purposes of constraining the intrinsic shape of its underlying mass and presenting a detailed investigation of the uncertainties resulting from the assumptions underlying this type of analysis. The X-ray isophotes are elongated with ellipticity 0.10−0.270.10 - 0.27 (90% confidence) for semi-major axes 75\arcsec -90\arcsec and have orientations consistent with the optical isophotes (ellipticity ∌0.43\sim 0.43). The spectrum is poorly constrained by the PSPC data and cannot rule out sizeable radial temperature gradients or an emission component due to discrete sources equal in magnitude to the hot gas. Using (and clarifying) the "geometric test" for dark matter, we determined that the hypothesis that mass-traces-light is not consistent with the X-ray data at 68% confidence and marginally consistent at 90% confidence independent of the gas temperature profile. Detailed modeling gives constraints on the ellipticity of the underlying mass of \epsilon_{mass} = 0.47 - 0.72 (0.31 - 0.83) at 68% (90%) confidence for isothermal and polytropic models. The total mass of the isothermal models within a=43.6 kpc (D = 20h^{-1}_{80} Mpc) is M_{tot} = (0.38 - 1.7) \times 10^{12}M_{\sun} (90% confidence) corresponding to total blue mass-to-light ratio \Upsilon_B = (31.9 - 143) \Upsilon_{\sun}. Similar results are obtained when the dark matter is fit directly using the known distributions of the stars and gas. When possible rotation of the gas and emission from discrete sources are included flattened mass distributions are still required, although the constraints on \epsilon_{mass}$, but not the total mass, are substantially weakened.Comment: 45 pages (figures missing), PostScript, to appear in ApJ on January 20, 199

    X-ray Isophote Shapes and the Mass of NGC 3923

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    We present analysis of the shape and radial mass distribution of the E4 galaxy NGC 3923 using archival X-ray data from the ROSAT PSPC and HRI. The X-ray isophotes are significantly elongated with ellipticity e_x=0.15 (0.09-0.21) (90% confidence) for semi-major axis a\sim 10h^{-1}_70 kpc and have position angles aligned with the optical isophotes within the estimated uncertainties. Applying the Geometric Test for dark matter, which is independent of the gas temperature profile, we find that the ellipticities of the PSPC isophotes exceed those predicted if M propto L at a marginal significance level of 85% (80%) for oblate (prolate) symmetry. Detailed hydrostatic models of an isothermal gas yield ellipticities for the gravitating matter, e_mass=0.35-0.66 (90% confidence), which exceed the intensity weighted ellipticity of the R-band optical light, = 0.30 (e_R^max=0.39). We conclude that mass density profiles with rho\sim r^{-2} are favored over steeper profiles if the gas is essentially isothermal (which is suggested by the PSPC spectrum) and the surface brightness in the central regions (r<~15") is not modified substantially by a multi-phase cooling flow, magnetic fields, or discrete sources. We argue that these effects are unlikely to be important for NGC 3923. (The derived e_{mass} range is very insensitive to these issues.) Our spatial analysis also indicates that the allowed contribution to the ROSAT emission from a population of discrete sources with Sigma_x propto Sigma_R is significantly less than that indicated by the hard spectral component measured by ASCA.Comment: 14 pages (6 figures), To Appear in MNRA