67 research outputs found

    Addressing the Majorana vs. Dirac Question with Neutrino Decays

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    The Majorana versus Dirac nature of neutrinos remains an open question. This is due, in part, to the fact that virtually all the experimentally accessible neutrinos are ultra-relativistic. Noting that Majorana neutrinos can behave quite differently from Dirac ones when they are non-relativistic, we show that, at leading order, the angular distribution of the daughters in the decay of a heavy neutrino into a lighter one and a self-conjugate boson is isotropic in the parent's rest frame if the neutrinos are Majorana, independent of the parent's polarization. If the neutrinos are Dirac fermions, this is, in general, not the case. This result follows from CPT invariance and is independent of the details of the physics responsible for the decay. We explore the feasibility of using these angular distributions -- or, equivalently, the energy distributions of the daughters in the laboratory frame -- in order to address the Majorana versus Dirac nature of neutrinos if a fourth, heavier neutrino mass eigenstate reveals itself in the current or next-generation of high-energy colliders, intense meson facilities, or neutrino beam experiments.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

    Spin-flavor precession of Dirac neutrinos in dense matter and its potential in core-collapse supernovae

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    We calculate the spin-flavor precession (SFP) of Dirac neutrinos induced by strong magnetic fields and finite neutrino magnetic moments in dense matter. As found in the case of Majorana neutrinos, the SFP of Dirac neutrinos is enhanced by the large magnetic field potential and suppressed by large matter potentials composed of the baryon density and the electron fraction. The SFP is possible irrespective of the large baryon density when the electron fraction is close to 1/3. The diagonal neutrino magnetic moments that are prohibited for Majorana neutrinos enable the spin precession of Dirac neutrinos without any flavor mixing. With supernova hydrodynamics simulation data, we discuss the possibility of the SFP of both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos in core-collapse supernovae. The SFP of Dirac neutrinos occurs at a radius where the electron fraction is 1/3. The required magnetic field of the proto-neutron star for the SFP is a few 101410^{14}G at any explosion time. For the Majorana neutrinos, the required magnetic field fluctuates from 101310^{13}G to 101510^{15}G. Such a fluctuation of the magnetic field is more sensitive to the numerical scheme of the neutrino transport in the supernova simulation.Comment: 14 pages, 10 figure

    Collective neutrino oscillations on a quantum computer with hybrid quantum-classical algorithm

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    We simulate the time evolution of collective neutrino oscillations in two-flavor settings on a quantum computer. We explore the generalization of Trotter-Suzuki approximation to time-dependent Hamiltonian dynamics. The trotterization steps are further optimized using the Cartan decomposition of two-qubit unitary gates U \in SU (4) in the minimum number of controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates making the algorithm more resilient to the hardware noise. A more efficient hybrid quantum-classical algorithm is also explored to solve the problem on noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices.Comment: 9 pages, 10 figure

    Axion Production from Landau Quantization in the Strong Magnetic Field of Magnetars

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    We utilize an exact quantum calculation to explore axion emission from electrons and protons in the presence of the strong magnetic field of magnetars. The axion is emitted via transitions between the Landau levels generated by the strong magnetic field. The luminosity of axions emitted by protons is shown to be much larger than that of electrons and becomes stronger with increasing matter density. Cooling by axion emission is shown to be much larger than neutrino cooling by the Urca processes. Consequently, axion emission in the crust may significantly contribute to the cooling of magnetars. In the high-density core, however, it may cause heating of the magnetar.Comment: 14 pages, 3 figure