123 research outputs found

    The effect of maternal protein restriction during perinatal life on the inflammatory response in pediatric rats

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    Fetal growth restriction can affect health outcomes in postnatal life. This study tested the hypothesis that the response to an inflammatory pulmonary insult is altered in pediatric fetal growth restricted rats. Using a low-protein diet during gestation and postnatal life, growth-restricted male and female rats and healthy control rats were exposed to an inflammatory insult via the intratracheal instillation of heat-killed bacteria. After 6 h, animal lungs were examined for lung inflammation and status of the surfactant system. The results showed that in response to an inflammatory insult, neutrophil infiltration was decreased in both male and female rats in the growth-restricted animals compared with the control rats. The amount of surfactant was increased in the growth-restricted animals compared with the control rats, regardless of the inflammatory insult. It is concluded that fetal growth restriction results in increased surfactant and altered neutrophil responses following pulmonary insult

    Phenomenological Implications of Deflected Mirage Mediation: Comparison with Mirage Mediation

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    We compare the collider phenomenology of mirage mediation and deflected mirage mediation, which are two recently proposed "mixed" supersymmetry breaking scenarios motivated from string compactifications. The scenarios differ in that deflected mirage mediation includes contributions from gauge mediation in addition to the contributions from gravity mediation and anomaly mediation also present in mirage mediation. The threshold effects from gauge mediation can drastically alter the low energy spectrum from that of pure mirage mediation models, resulting in some cases in a squeezed gaugino spectrum and a gluino that is much lighter than other colored superpartners. We provide several benchmark deflected mirage mediation models and construct model lines as a function of the gauge mediation contributions, and discuss their discovery potential at the LHC.Comment: 29 pages, 9 figure

    General Analysis of Antideuteron Searches for Dark Matter

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    Low energy cosmic ray antideuterons provide a unique low background channel for indirect detection of dark matter. We compute the cosmic ray flux of antideuterons from hadronic annihilations of dark matter for various Standard Model final states and determine the mass reach of two future experiments (AMS-02 and GAPS) designed to greatly increase the sensitivity of antideuteron detection over current bounds. We consider generic models of scalar, fermion, and massive vector bosons as thermal dark matter, describe their basic features relevant to direct and indirect detection, and discuss the implications of direct detection bounds on models of dark matter as a thermal relic. We also consider specific dark matter candidates and assess their potential for detection via antideuterons from their hadronic annihilation channels. Since the dark matter mass reach of the GAPS experiment can be well above 100 GeV, we find that antideuterons can be a good indirect detection channel for a variety of thermal relic electroweak scale dark matter candidates, even when the rate for direct detection is highly suppressed.Comment: 44 pages, 15 Figure

    Connecting LHC, ILC, and Quintessence

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    If the cold dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), anticipated measurements of the WIMP properties at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) will provide an unprecedented experimental probe of cosmology at temperatures of order 1 GeV. It is worth emphasizing that the expected outcome of these tests may or may not be consistent with the picture of standard cosmology. For example, in kination-dominated quintessence models of dark energy, the dark matter relic abundance can be significantly enhanced compared to that obtained from freeze out in a radiation-dominated universe. Collider measurements then will simultaneously probe both dark matter and dark energy. In this article, we investigate the precision to which the LHC and ILC can determine the dark matter and dark energy parameters under those circumstances. We use an illustrative set of four benchmark points in minimal supergravity in analogy with the four LCC benchmark points. The precision achievable together at the LHC and ILC is sufficient to discover kination-dominated quintessence, under the assumption that the WIMPs are the only dark matter component. The LHC and ILC can thus play important roles as alternative probes of both dark matter and dark energy.Comment: 38 pages, 9 figure

    Pre-hospital transfusion of plasma in hemorrhaging trauma patients independently improves hemostatic competence and acidosis

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    BACKGROUND: The early use of blood products has been associated with improved patient outcomes following severe hemorrhage or traumatic injury. We aimed to investigate the influence of pre-hospital blood products (i.e. plasma and/or RBCs) on admission hemostatic properties and patient outcomes. We hypothesized that pre-hospital plasma would improve hemostatic function as evaluated by rapid thrombelastography (rTEG). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study recruiting 257 trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center having received either blood products pre-hospital or in-hospital within 6 hours of admission. Clinical data on patient demographics, blood biochemistry, injury severity score and mortality were collected. Admission rTEG was conducted to characterize the coagulation profile and hemostatic function. RESULTS: 75 patients received pre-hospital plasma and/or RBCs (PH group; nearly half received both RBCs and plasma) whereas 182 patients only received in-hospital blood products (RBCs, Plasma and Platelets) within 6 hours of admission (IH group). PH patients had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, more penetrating injuries, lower systolic blood pressures, lower hemoglobin levels, lower platelet counts and greater acidosis upon ED admission than the IH group (all p < 0.05). Despite differences in type of injury and admission vitals indicating that the PH group had more signs of bleeding than the IH group, there were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (PH 26.7% vs. IH 20.9% p = 0.31). When comparing rTEG variables between PH patients transfused with 0, 1 or 2 units of plasma, more pre-hospital plasma transfusion was tendency towards improved rTEG variables. When adjusting for pre-hospital RBC, pre-hospital plasma was associated with significantly higher rTEG MA (p = 0.012) at hospital admission. DISCUSSION: After adjusting for pre-hospital RBCs, pre-hospital plasma transfusion was independently associated with increased rTEG MA, as well as arrival indices of shock and hemodynamic instability. Besides more severe injury and worse clinical presentation, the group that received pre-hospital transfusion had early and late mortality similar to patients not transfused pre-hospital. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that early administration of plasma can provide significant hemostatic and potential survival benefit to severely hemorrhaging trauma patients

    Traumatic Endotheliopathy:A Prospective Observational Study of 424 Severely Injured Patients

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    OBJECTIVE: Investigate and confirm the association between sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy and poor outcome in trauma patients. BACKGROUND: The association between sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy, and poor outcome in trauma has only been demonstrated in smaller patient cohorts and animal models but needs confirmation in a large independent patient cohort. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 424 trauma patients admitted to a level 1 Trauma Center. Admission plasma levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, and sE-selectin) were measured and demography, injury type and severity, physiology, treatment, and mortality up till 28 days were recorded. RESULTS: Patients had a median ISS of 17 with 72% suffering from blunt injury. Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated with syndecan-1 (r = 0.38, P < 0.001 and r = 0.23, P < 0.001, respectively) but adrenaline was the only independent predictor of syndecan-1 by multiple linear regression adjusted for age, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, base excess, platelet count, hemoglobin, prehospital plasma, and prehospital fluids (100 pg/mL higher adrenaline predicted 2.75 ng/mL higher syndecan-1, P < 0.001). By Cox analyses adjusted for age, sex, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, base excess, platelet count and hemoglobin, adrenaline, and syndecan-1 were the only independent predictors of both <24-hours, 7-day and 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, noradrenaline was an independent predictor of <24-hours mortality and thrombomodulin was an independent predictor of 7-day and 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that sympathoadrenal activation was strongly and independently associated with endothelial glycocalyx and cell damage (ie, endotheliopathy) and furthermore that sympathoadrenal activation and endotheliopathy were independent predictors of mortality in trauma patients

    Exercise training induces depot-specific adaptations to white and brown adipose tissue

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    Exercise affects whole-body metabolism through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue (AT). Recent studies investigated exercise-induced adaptations to AT, focusing on inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT), perigonadal WAT, and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). Although these AT depots play important roles in metabolism, they account for only ∼50% of the AT mass in a mouse. Here, we investigated the effects of 3 weeks of exercise training on all 14 AT depots. Exercise induced depot-specific effects in genes involved in mitochondrial activity, glucose metabolism, and fatty acid uptake and oxidation in each adipose tissue (AT) depot. These data demonstrate that exercise training results in unique responses in each AT depot; identifying the depot-specific adaptations to AT in response to exercise is essential to determine how AT contributes to the overall beneficial effect of exercise11425439This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants R01-HL138738 and K01-DK105109 (to K.I.S.), R01-DK099511 (to L.J.G.), and 5P30 DK36836 (Joslin Diabetes Center DRC). The authors thank Nathan Makarewicz for editorial contribution

    Alternative approach to b>sγb->s \gamma in the uMSSM

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    The gluino contributions to the C7,8C'_{7,8} Wilson coefficients for b>sγb->s \gamma are calculated within the unconstrained MSSM. New stringent bounds on the δ23RL\delta^{RL}_{23} and δ23RR\delta^{RR}_{23} mass insertion parameters are obtained in the limit in which the SM and SUSY contributions to C7,8C_{7,8} approximately cancel. Such a cancellation can plausibly appear within several classes of SUSY breaking models in which the trilinear couplings exhibit a factorized structure proportional to the Yukawa matrices. Assuming this cancellation takes place, we perform an analysis of the b>sγb->s \gamma decay. We show that in a supersymmetric world such an alternative is reasonable and it is possible to saturate the b>sγb->s \gamma branching ratio and produce a CP asymmetry of up to 20%, from only the gluino contribution to C7,8C'_{7,8} coefficients. Using photon polarization a LR asymmetry can be defined that in principle allows for the C7,8C_{7,8} and C7,8C'_{7,8} contributions to the b>sγb->s \gamma decay to be disentangled. In this scenario no constraints on the ``sign of μ\mu'' can be derived.Comment: LaTeX2e, 23 pages, 7 ps figure, needs package epsfi
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