10 research outputs found

    Using mutability landscapes of a promiscuous tautomerase to guide the engineering of enantioselective Michaelases

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    The Michael-type addition reaction is widely used in organic synthesis for carbon-carbon bond formation. However, biocatalytic methodologies for this type of reaction are scarce, which is related to the fact that enzymes naturally catalysing carbon-carbon bond-forming Michael-type additions are rare. A promising template to develop new biocatalysts for carbon-carbon bond formation is the enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase, which exhibits promiscuous Michael-type addition activity. Here we present mutability landscapes for the expression, tautomerase and Michael-type addition activities, and enantioselectivity of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. These maps of neutral, beneficial and detrimental amino acids for each residue position and enzyme property provide detailed insight into sequence-function relationships. This offers exciting opportunities for enzyme engineering, which is illustrated by the redesign of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase into two enantiocomplementary 'Michaelases'. These 'Michaelases' catalyse the asymmetric addition of acetaldehyde to various nitroolefins, providing access to both enantiomers of ╬│-nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active ╬│-aminobutyric acid derivatives

    Kinetic mechanism of phenylacetone monooxygenase from Thermobifida fusca

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    Phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) from Thermobifida fusca is a FAD-containing Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO). To elucidate the mechanism of conversion of phenylacetone by PAMO, we have performed a detailed steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analysis. In the catalytic cycle (k(cat) = 3.1 s(-1)), rapid binding of NADPH (K(d) = 0.7 mu M) is followed by a transfer of the 4(R)-hydride from NADPH to the FAD cofactor (k(red) = 12 s(-1)). The reduced PAMO is rapidly oxygenated by molecular oxygen (k(ox) = 870 mM(-1) s(-1)), yielding a C4a-peroxyflavin. The peroxyflavin enzyme intermediate reacts with phenylacetone to form benzylacetate (k(1) = 73 s(-1)). This latter kinetic event leads to an enzyme intermediate which we could not unequivocally assign and may represent a Criegee intermediate or a C4a-hydroxyflavin form. The relatively slow decay (4.1 s(-1)) of this intermediate yields fully reoxidized PAMO and limits the turnover rate. NADP(+) release is relatively fast and represents the final step of the catalytic cycle. This study shows that kinetic behavior of PAMO is significantly different when compared with that of sequence-related monooxygenases, e.g., cyclohexanone monooxygenase and liver microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenase. Inspection of the crystal structure of PAMO has revealed that residue R337, which is conserved in other BVMOs, is positioned close to the flavin cofactor. The analyzed R337A and R337K mutant enzymes were still able to form and stabilize the C4a-peroxyflavin intermediate. The mutants were unable to convert either phenylacetone or benzyl methyl sulfide. This demonstrates that R337 is crucially involved in assisting PAMO-mediated Baeyer-Villiger and sulfoxidation reactions

    Aqueous Oxidative Heck Reaction as a Protein-Labeling Strategy

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    An increasing number of chemical reactions are being employed for bio-orthogonal ligation of detection labels to protein-bound functional groups. Several of these strategies, however, are limited in their application to pure proteins and are ineffective in complex biological samples such as cell lysates. Here we present the palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck reaction as a new and robust bio-orthogonal strategy for linking functionalized arylboronic acids to protein-bound alkenes in high yields and with excellent chemoselectivity even in the presence of complex protein mixtures from living cells. Advantageously, this reaction proceeds under aerobic conditions, whereas most other metal-catalyzed reactions require inert atmosphere.

    Structural and Functional Characterization of a Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Homologue from the Marine Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus

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    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional mammalian cytokine, which exhibits tautomerase and oxidoreductase activity. MIF homologues with pairwise sequence identities to human MIF ranging from 31% to 41% have been detected in various cyanobacteria. The gene encoding the MIF homologue from the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus strain MIT9313 has been cloned and the corresponding protein (PmMIF) overproduced, purified, and subjected to functional and structural characterization. Kinetic and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies show that PmMIF tautomerizes phenylenolpyruvate and (p-hydroxyphenyl)enolpyruvate at low levels. The N-terminal proline of PmMIF is critical for these reactions because the P1A mutant has strongly reduced tautomerase activities. PmMIF shows high structural homology with mammalian MIFs as revealed by a crystal structure of PmMIF at 1.63 ├ů resolution. MIF contains a Cys-X-X-Cys motif that mediates oxidoreductase activity, which is lacking from PmMIF. Engineering of the motif into PmMIF did not result in oxidoreductase activity but increased the tautomerase activity 8-fold. The shared tautomerase activities and the conservation of the ╬▓-╬▒-╬▓ structural fold and key functional groups suggest that eukaryotic MIFs and cyanobacterial PmMIF are related by divergent evolution from a common ancestor. While several MIF homologues have been identified in eukaryotic parasites, where they are thought to play a role in modulating the host immune response, PmMIF is the first nonparasitic, bacterial MIF-like protein characterized in detail. This work sets the stage for future studies which could address the question whether a MIF-like protein from a free-living bacterium possesses immunostimulatory features similar to those of mammalian MIFs and MIF-like proteins found in parasitic nematodes and protozoa.
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