18 research outputs found

    Measuring Glutathione Redox Potential of HIV-1-infected Macrophages

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    Redox signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The majority of HIV redox research relies on measuring redox stress using invasive technologies, which are unreliable and do not provide information about the contributions of subcellular compartments. A major technological leap emerges from the development of genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), which provide sensitive and compartment-specific insights into redox homeostasis. Here, we exploited a roGFP-based specific bioprobe of glutathione redox potential (E-GSH; Grx1-roGFP2) and measured subcellular changes in E-GSH during various phases of HIV-1 infection using U1 monocytic cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1). We show that although U937 and U1 cells demonstrate significantly reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial E-GSH (approximately -310 mV), active viral replication induces substantial oxidative stress (E-GSH more than -240 mV). Furthermore, exposure to a physiologically relevant oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induces significant deviations in subcellular E-GSH between U937 and U1, which distinctly modulates susceptibility to apoptosis. Using Grx1-roGFP2, we demonstrate that a marginal increase of about similar to 25 mV in E-GSH is sufficient to switch HIV-1 from latency to reactivation, raising the possibility of purging HIV-1 by redox modulators without triggering detrimental changes in cellular physiology. Importantly, we show that bioactive lipids synthesized by clinical drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivate HIV-1 through modulation of intracellular E-GSH. Finally, the expression analysis of U1 and patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a major recalibration of cellular redox homeostatic pathways during persistence and active replication of HIV

    Biapenem, a Carbapenem Antibiotic, Elicits Mycobacteria Specific Immune Responses and Reduces the Recurrence of Tuberculosis

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    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) still tops the list of global health burdens even after COVID-19. However, it will sooner transcend the current pandemic due to the prevailing risk of reactivation of latent TB in immunocompromised individuals. The indiscriminate misuse and overuse of antibiotics have resulted in the emergence of deadly drug-resistant variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). This study aims to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM) in generating long-lasting immunity against TB. BPM treatment significantly boosted the activation status of the innate immune arm-macrophages by augmenting p38 signaling. Macrophages further primed and activated the adaptive immune cells CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung and spleen of the infected mice model. Furthermore, BPM treatment significantly amplified the polarization of T lymphocytes toward inflammatory subsets, such as Th1 and Th17. The treatment also helped generate a long-lived central memory T-cell subset. The generation of central memory T lymphocyte subset upon BPM treatment in the murine model led to a significant curtailing in the recurrence of TB due to reactivation and reinfection. These results suggest the potentiality of BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator to improve host defense against M.tb by enriching long-term protective memory cells. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) tops the list of infectious killers around the globe. The emergence of drug-resistant variants of M.tb has been a major hindrance toward realizing the “END TB” goal. Drug resistance has amplified the global burden toward the quest for novel drug molecules targeting M.tb. Host-directed therapy (HDT) offers a lucrative alternative to tackle emerging drug resistance and disease relapse by strengthening the host’s immunity. Through our present study, we have tried to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM). BPM treatment significantly augmented long-lasting immunity against TB by boosting the innate and adaptive immune arms. The generation of long-lived central memory T lymphocyte subset significantly improved the disease outcome and provided sterilizing immunity in the murine model of TB. The present investigation's encouraging results have helped us depict BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator for treating TB

    Multifaceted remodeling by vitamin C boosts sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subpopulations to combination treatment by anti-tubercular drugs

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    Bacterial dormancy is a major impediment to the eradication of tuberculosis (TB), because currently used drugs primarily target actively replicating bacteria. Therefore, decoding of the critical survival pathways in dormant tubercle bacilli is a research priority to formulate new approaches for killing these bacteria. Employing a network-based gene expression analysis approach, we demonstrate that redox active vitamin C (vit C) triggers a multifaceted and robust adaptation response in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) involving similar to 67% of the genome. Vit C-adapted bacteria display well-described features of dormancy, including growth stasis and progression to a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, loss of acid-fastness and reduction in length, dissipation of reductive stress through triglyceride (TAG) accumulation, protective response to oxidative stress, and tolerance to first line TB drugs. VBNC bacteria are reactivatable upon removal of vit C and they recover drug susceptibility properties. Vit C synergizes with pyrazinamide, a unique TB drug with sterilizing activity, to kill dormant and replicating bacteria, negating any tolerance to rifampicin and isoniazid in combination treatment in both in-vitro and intracellular infection models. Finally, the vit C multi-stress redox models described here also offer a unique opportunity for concurrent screening of compounds/combinations active against heterogeneous subpopulations of Mtb. These findings suggest a novel strategy of vit C adjunctive therapy by modulating bacterial physiology for enhanced efficacy of combination chemotherapy with existing drugs, and also possible synergies to guide new therapeutic combinations towards accelerating TB treatment