4 research outputs found

    Geschichte der literarischen Kommunikation in Russland im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert

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    1. Autonomisierung, Kommerzialisierung und Entstehung des literarischen Publikums: Literarische Kommunikation zwischen 1800 und 1890 2. Literarische Kommunikation zwischen ästhetischer Moderne und "Massenkultur": Das späte Zarenreich (1890-1917) 3. "Verstaatlichung der Literatur" und "Leserevolution". Literarische Kommunikation unter Bedingungen der "Diktatur des Proletariats" und des totalitären Staates (1917-1953) 4. Versuchte "Re-autonomisierung" und "Leserboom". Literarische Kommunikation im Tauwetter und Stagnation (1953-1985) 5. "Entstaatlichung" und zweite "Leserrevolution": Literarische Kommunikation während der Perestrojka und des Zusammenbruchs (1985-2000

    Bromine Crossover in Operando Analysis of Proton Exchange Membranes in Hydrogen−Bromate Flow Batteries

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    The manuscript deals with the fundamental problem of platinum hydrogen oxidation catalyst poisoning of the hybrid chemical power source based on bromate electroreduction and hydrogen electro-oxidation reactions. The poisoning is caused by the crossover of bromine-containing species through the proton exchange membrane separating compartments of the flow cell. Poisoning results in a drastic decrease in the flow cell performance. This paper describes the results of the direct measurement of bromine-containing species’ crossover through perfluorosulfonic acid membranes of popular vendors in a hydrogen−bromate flow cell and proposes corresponding scenarios for the flow battery charge−discharge operation based on the electrolyte’s control of the pH value. The rate of the crossover of the bromine-containing species through the membrane is found to be inversely proportional to the membrane thickness

    Successful Charge–Discharge Experiments of Anthraquinone-Bromate Flow Battery: First Report

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    The proposed anthraquinone-bromate cell combines the advantages of anthraquinone-bromine redox flow batteries and novel hybrid hydrogen-bromate flow batteries. The anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid is of interest as a promising organic negolyte due its high solubility, rapid kinetics of electrode reactions and suitable redox potentials combined with a high chemical stability during redox reactions. Lithium or sodium bromates as posolytes provide an anomalously high discharge current density of order ~A cm−2 due to a novel autocatalytic mechanism. Combining these two systems, we developed a single cell of novel anthraquinone-bromate flow battery, which showed a power density of 1.08 W cm−2, energy density of 16.1 W h L−1 and energy efficiency of 72% after 10 charge–discharge cycles

    Halogen Hybrid Flow Batteries Advances for Stationary Chemical Power Sources Technologies

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    This review aims to highlight the current advances in hybrid redox flow battery (HRFB) technology, encompassing one of the best combinations of efficiency, cost and flexibility due to its module construction, which offers independent scaling of power density and energy capacity. This work emphasizes the interest of the scientific community both in (i) studying the properties and principles of HRFB operation in order to improve commonly proposed systems, and in (ii) the development of energy storage devices with new reagent types or RFB concepts. The data provided enhances the reader to conclude whether novel concepts in halogen oxidizers utilization could help to overcome the problem of insufficient power and energy densities of common RFB