17,877 research outputs found

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### Fe isotopes in Martian meteorites: role of water and possibility of life on Mars

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### Dust from collisions: mid-infrared absorbance spectroscopy of Martian meteorites

Mid-infrared transmission/absorbance spectra of a representative range of martian meteorites are presented. The data is used for mineralogical bulk studies, but also for the comparison with astronomical dust spectra

### A digital interface for Gaussian relay networks: lifting codes from the discrete superposition model to Gaussian relay networks

For every Gaussian relay network with a single source-destination pair, it is
known that there exists a corresponding deterministic network called the
discrete superposition network that approximates its capacity uniformly over
all SNR's to within a bounded number of bits. The next step in this program of
rigorous approximation is to determine whether coding schemes for discrete
superposition models can be lifted to Gaussian relay networks with a bounded
rate loss independent of SNR. We establish precisely this property and show
that the superposition model can thus serve as a strong surrogate for designing
codes for Gaussian relay networks.
We show that a code for a Gaussian relay network, with a single
source-destination pair and multiple relay nodes, can be designed from any code
for the corresponding discrete superposition network simply by pruning it. In
comparison to the rate of the discrete superposition network's code, the rate
of the Gaussian network's code only reduces at most by a constant that is a
function only of the number of nodes in the network and independent of channel
gains.
This result is also applicable for coding schemes for MIMO Gaussian relay
networks, with the reduction depending additionally on the number of antennas.
Hence, the discrete superposition model can serve as a digital interface for
operating Gaussian relay networks.Comment: 5 pages, 2010 IEEE Information Theory Workshop, Cair

### A digital interface for Gaussian relay and interference networks: Lifting codes from the discrete superposition model

For every Gaussian network, there exists a corresponding deterministic
network called the discrete superposition network. We show that this discrete
superposition network provides a near-optimal digital interface for operating a
class consisting of many Gaussian networks in the sense that any code for the
discrete superposition network can be naturally lifted to a corresponding code
for the Gaussian network, while achieving a rate that is no more than a
constant number of bits lesser than the rate it achieves for the discrete
superposition network. This constant depends only on the number of nodes in the
network and not on the channel gains or SNR. Moreover the capacities of the two
networks are within a constant of each other, again independent of channel
gains and SNR. We show that the class of Gaussian networks for which this
interface property holds includes relay networks with a single
source-destination pair, interference networks, multicast networks, and the
counterparts of these networks with multiple transmit and receive antennas.
The code for the Gaussian relay network can be obtained from any code for the
discrete superposition network simply by pruning it. This lifting scheme
establishes that the superposition model can indeed potentially serve as a
strong surrogate for designing codes for Gaussian relay networks.
We present similar results for the K x K Gaussian interference network, MIMO
Gaussian interference networks, MIMO Gaussian relay networks, and multicast
networks, with the constant gap depending additionally on the number of
antennas in case of MIMO networks.Comment: Final versio

### Universal patterns of inequality

Probability distributions of money, income, and energy consumption per capita
are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy
maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential
distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of
money temperatures between different systems generates net fluxes of money and
population. To describe income distribution, a stochastic process with additive
and multiplicative components is introduced. The resultant distribution
interpolates between exponential at the low end and power law at the high end,
in agreement with the empirical data for USA. We show that the increase of
income inequality in USA originates primarily from the increase of the income
fraction going to the upper tail, which now exceeds 20% of the total income.
Analyzing the data from the World Resources Institute, we find that the
distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world can be
approximately described by the exponential function. Comparing the data for
1990, 2000, and 2005, we discuss the effect of globalization on the inequality
of energy consumption.Comment: Accepted to New Journal of Physics. 27 pages (IOP preprint style), 8
figures. V.2: Updated figs. 3 and 8, many references added, all text edited.
V.3: Minor changes, last 3 references added. V.4: Minor stylistic changes and
reference updates in proof

### Low Correlation Sequences over the QAM Constellation

This paper presents the first concerted look at low correlation sequence
families over QAM constellations of size M^2=4^m and their potential
applicability as spreading sequences in a CDMA setting.
Five constructions are presented, and it is shown how such sequence families
have the ability to transport a larger amount of data as well as enable
variable-rate signalling on the reverse link.
Canonical family CQ has period N, normalized maximum-correlation parameter
theta_max bounded above by A sqrt(N), where 'A' ranges from 1.8 in the 16-QAM
case to 3.0 for large M. In a CDMA setting, each user is enabled to transfer 2m
bits of data per period of the spreading sequence which can be increased to 3m
bits of data by halving the size of the sequence family. The technique used to
construct CQ is easily extended to produce larger sequence families and an
example is provided.
Selected family SQ has a lower value of theta_max but permits only (m+1)-bit
data modulation. The interleaved 16-QAM sequence family IQ has theta_max <=
sqrt(2) sqrt(N) and supports 3-bit data modulation.
The remaining two families are over a quadrature-PAM (Q-PAM) subset of size
2M of the M^2-QAM constellation. Family P has a lower value of theta_max in
comparison with Family SQ, while still permitting (m+1)-bit data modulation.
Interleaved family IP, over the 8-ary Q-PAM constellation, permits 3-bit data
modulation and interestingly, achieves the Welch lower bound on theta_max.Comment: 21 pages, 3 figures. To appear in IEEE Transactions on Information
Theory in February 200

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### Estimation of energy and material use of sintering-based construction for a lunar outpost - with the example of SinterHab module design

In this paper, we would revisit the usability of microwave for lunar regolith sintering through an in-depth experiment, and examine the minimum materials and energy required for sintering based on the SinterHab design. This will include the minimum layers to print, estimated printing time, minimum energy required for the sintering process and the potential energy sources

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