131 research outputs found

    Forcing scale invariance in multipolarization SAR change detection

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    This paper considers the problem of coherent (in the sense that both amplitudes and relative phases of the polarimetric returns are used to construct the decision statistic) multi-polarization SAR change detec- tion starting from the availability of image pairs exhibiting possible power mismatches/miscalibrations. The principle of invariance is used to characterize the class of scale-invariant decision rules which are insensitive to power mismatches and ensure the Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) property. A maximal invariant statistic is derived together with the induced maximal invariant in the parameter space which significantly compress the data/parameters domain. A Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) is synthesized both for the cases of two- and three-polarimetric channels. Interestingly, for the two-channel case, it is based on the comparison of the condition number of a data-dependent matrix with a suitable threshold. Some additional invariant decision rules are also proposed. The performance of the considered scale-invariant structures is compared to those from two non- invariant counterparts using both simulated and real radar data. The results highlight the robustness of the proposed method and the performance tradeoff involve

    IDO1 involvement in mTOR pathway: A molecular mechanism of resistance to mTOR targeting in medulloblastoma

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    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Despite therapeutic advancements, high-risk groups still present significant mortality. A deeper knowledge of the signaling pathways contributing to MB formation and aggressiveness would help develop new successful therapies. The target of rapamycin, mTOR signaling, is known to be involved in MB and is already targetable in the clinical setting. Furthermore, mTOR is a master metabolic regulator able to control cell growth versus autophagy decisions in conditions of amino-acid deprivation that can be due to IDO1 enzymatic activity. IDO1 has been also implicated in the regulation of inflammation, as well as of T cell-mediated immune responses, in a variety of pathological conditions, including brain tumors. In particular, IDO1 induces expansion of regulatory T-cells (Treg), preventing immune response against tumor cells. Analysis of 27 MB tissue specimens for the expression of both mTOR and IDO1 showed their widespread expression in all samples. Testing their cooperation in vitro, a significant involvement of IDO1 in mTOR immunogenic pathway was found, able to counteract the aim of rapamycin treatment. In MB cell lines, inhibition of mTOR strongly induced IDO1 expression and activity, corroborating its ability to recruit Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment. The mTOR/IDO1 cross talk was found to be strictly specific of MB cells. We demonstrated that mTOR pathway cross talks with IDO1 pathway to promote MB immune escape, possibly contributing to failure of mTOR- targeted therapy

    Structure-based design of an urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor–derived peptide inhibiting cell migration and lung metastasis

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    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role in sustaining the malignant phenotype and promoting tumor metastasis. The Ser88-Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr92 is the minimum chemotactic sequence of uPAR required to induce the same intracellular signaling as its ligand uPA. Here, we describe the generation of new peptide inhibitors of cell migration and invasion derived from SRSRY by a drug design approach. Ac-Arg-Glu-Arg-Phe-NH2 (i.e., RERF), which adopts a turned structure in solution, was selected for its ability to potently prevent SRSRY-directed cell migration. Fluorescein-RERF associates with very high affinity to RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells expressing the human formyl peptide receptor (FPR). Accordingly, femtomolar concentrations of RERF prevent agonist-dependent internalization of FPR and inhibit N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe–dependent migration in a dose-dependent manner. In the absence of FPR, fluorescein-RERF binds to cell surface at picomolar concentrations in an αv integrin–dependent manner. The involvement of vitronectin receptor is further supported by the findings that 100 pmol/L RERF selectively inhibits vitronectin-dependent RBL-2H3 cell migration and prevents SRSRY-triggered uPAR/αv association. Furthermore, RERF reduces the speed of wound closure and the extent of Matrigel invasion by human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells without affecting cell proliferation. Finally, a 3- to 5-fold reduction of lung metastasis number and size in nude mice following i.v. injection of green fluorescent protein–expressing HT1080 cells in the presence of 3.32 mg/kg RERF is observed. Our findings indicate that RERF effectively prevents malignant cell invasion in vivo with no signs of toxicity and may represent a promising prototype drug for anticancer therapy

    Lack of SARS-CoV-2 RNA environmental contamination in a tertiary referral hospital for infectious diseases in Northern Italy

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    none140noNAnoneColaneri M.; Seminari E.; Piralla A.; Zuccaro V.; Di Filippo A.; Baldanti F.; Bruno R.; Mondelli M.U.; Brunetti E.; Di Matteo A.; Maiocchi L.; Pagnucco L.; Mariani B.; Ludovisi S.; Lissandrin R.; Parisi A.; Sacchi P.; Patruno S.F.A.; Michelone G.; Gulminetti R.; Zanaboni D.; Novati S.; Maserati R.; Orsolini P.; Vecchia M.; Sciarra M.; Asperges E.; Sambo M.; Biscarini S.; Lupi M.; Roda S.; Chiara Pieri T.; Gallazzi I.; Sachs M.; Valsecchi P.; Perlini S.; Alfano C.; Bonzano M.; Briganti F.; Crescenzi G.; Giulia Falchi A.; Guarnone R.; Guglielmana B.; Maggi E.; Martino I.; Pettenazza P.; Pioli di Marco S.; Quaglia F.; Sabena A.; Salinaro F.; Speciale F.; Zunino I.; De Lorenzo M.; Secco G.; Dimitry L.; Cappa G.; Maisak I.; Chiodi B.; Sciarrini M.; Barcella B.; Resta F.; Moroni L.; Vezzoni G.; Scattaglia L.; Boscolo E.; Zattera C.; Michele Fidel T.; Vincenzo C.; Vignaroli D.; Bazzini M.; Iotti G.; Mojoli F.; Belliato M.; Perotti L.; Mongodi S.; Tavazzi G.; Marseglia G.; Licari A.; Brambilla I.; Daniela B.; Antonella B.; Patrizia C.; Giulia C.; Giuditta C.; Marta C.; Rossana D.; Milena F.; Bianca M.; Roberta M.; Enza M.; Stefania P.; Maurizio P.; Elena P.; Antonio P.; Francesca R.; Antonella S.; Maurizio Z.; Guy A.; Laura B.; Ermanna C.; Giuliana C.; Luca D.; Gabriella F.; Gabriella G.; Alessia G.; Viviana L.; Claudia L.; Valentina M.; Simona P.; Marta P.; Alice B.; Giacomo C.; Irene C.; Alfonso C.; Di Martino R.; Di Napoli A.; Alessandro F.; Guglielmo F.; Loretta F.; Federica G.; Alessandra M.; Federica N.; Giacomo R.; Beatrice R.; Maria S.I.; Monica T.; Nepita Edoardo V.; Calvi M.; Tizzoni M.; Nicora C.; Triarico A.; Petronella V.; Marena C.; Muzzi A.; Lago P.; Comandatore F.; Bissignandi G.; Gaiarsa S.; Rettani M.; Bandi C.Colaneri, M.; Seminari, E.; Piralla, A.; Zuccaro, V.; Di Filippo, A.; Baldanti, F.; Bruno, R.; Mondelli, M. U.; Brunetti, E.; Di Matteo, A.; Maiocchi, L.; Pagnucco, L.; Mariani, B.; Ludovisi, S.; Lissandrin, R.; Parisi, A.; Sacchi, P.; Patruno, S. F. A.; Michelone, G.; Gulminetti, R.; Zanaboni, D.; Novati, S.; Maserati, R.; Orsolini, P.; Vecchia, M.; Sciarra, M.; Asperges, E.; Sambo, M.; Biscarini, S.; Lupi, M.; Roda, S.; Chiara Pieri, T.; Gallazzi, I.; Sachs, M.; Valsecchi, P.; Perlini, S.; Alfano, C.; Bonzano, M.; Briganti, F.; Crescenzi, G.; Giulia Falchi, A.; Guarnone, R.; Guglielmana, B.; Maggi, E.; Martino, I.; Pettenazza, P.; Pioli di Marco, S.; Quaglia, F.; Sabena, A.; Salinaro, F.; Speciale, F.; Zunino, I.; De Lorenzo, M.; Secco, G.; Dimitry, L.; Cappa, G.; Maisak, I.; Chiodi, B.; Sciarrini, M.; Barcella, B.; Resta, F.; Moroni, L.; Vezzoni, G.; Scattaglia, L.; Boscolo, E.; Zattera, C.; Michele Fidel, T.; Vincenzo, C.; Vignaroli, D.; Bazzini, M.; Iotti, G.; Mojoli, F.; Belliato, M.; Perotti, L.; Mongodi, S.; Tavazzi, G.; Marseglia, G.; Licari, A.; Brambilla, I.; Daniela, B.; Antonella, B.; Patrizia, C.; Giulia, C.; Giuditta, C.; Marta, C.; D'Alterio, Rossana; Milena, F.; Bianca, M.; Roberta, M.; Enza, M.; Stefania, P.; Maurizio, P.; Elena, P.; Antonio, P.; Francesca, R.; Antonella, S.; Maurizio, Z.; Guy, A.; Laura, B.; Ermanna, C.; Giuliana, C.; Luca, D.; Gabriella, F.; Gabriella, G.; Alessia, G.; Viviana, L.; Meisina, Claudia; Valentina, M.; Simona, P.; Marta, P.; Alice, B.; Giacomo, C.; Irene, C.; Alfonso, C.; Di Martino, R.; Di Napoli, A.; Alessandro, F.; Guglielmo, F.; Loretta, F.; Federica, G.; Albertini, Alessandra; Federica, N.; Giacomo, R.; Beatrice, R.; Maria, S. I.; Monica, T.; Nepita Edoardo, V.; Calvi, M.; Tizzoni, M.; Nicora, C.; Triarico, A.; Petronella, V.; Marena, C.; Muzzi, A.; Lago, P.; Comandatore, F.; Bissignandi, G.; Gaiarsa, S.; Rettani, M.; Bandi, C
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