1,782 research outputs found

    Disrupted Modularity and Local Connectivity of Brain Functional Networks in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

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    Modularity is a fundamental concept in systems neuroscience, referring to the formation of local cliques or modules of densely intra-connected nodes that are sparsely inter-connected with nodes in other modules. Topological modularity of brain functional networks can quantify theoretically anticipated abnormality of brain network community structure ‚Äď so-called dysmodularity ‚Äď in developmental disorders such as childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). We used graph theory to investigate topology of networks derived from resting-state fMRI data on 13 COS patients and 19 healthy volunteers. We measured functional connectivity between each pair of 100 regional nodes, focusing on wavelet correlation in the frequency interval 0.05‚Äď0.1‚ÄČHz, then applied global and local thresholding rules to construct graphs from each individual association matrix over the full range of possible connection densities. We show how local thresholding based on the minimum spanning tree facilitates group comparisons of networks by forcing the connectedness of sparse graphs. Threshold-dependent graph theoretical results are compatible with the results of a k-means unsupervised learning algorithm and a multi-resolution (spin glass) approach to modularity, both of which also find community structure but do not require thresholding of the association matrix. In general modularity of brain functional networks was significantly reduced in COS, due to a relatively reduced density of intra-modular connections between neighboring regions. Other network measures of local organization such as clustering were also decreased, while complementary measures of global efficiency and robustness were increased, in the COS group. The group differences in complex network properties were mirrored by differences in simpler statistical properties of the data, such as the variability of the global time series and the internal homogeneity of the time series within anatomical regions of interest

    Lesion covariance networks reveal proposed origins and pathways of diffuse gliomas.

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    Diffuse gliomas have been hypothesized to originate from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and develop along previously healthy brain networks. Here, we evaluated these hypotheses by mapping independent sources of glioma localization and determining their relationships with neurogenic niches, genetic markers and large-scale connectivity networks. By applying independent component analysis to lesion data from 242 adult patients with high- and low-grade glioma, we identified three lesion covariance networks, which reflect clusters of frequent glioma localization. Replicability of the lesion covariance networks was assessed in an independent sample of 168 glioma patients. We related the lesion covariance networks to important clinical variables, including tumour grade and patient survival, as well as genomic information such as molecular genetic subtype and bulk transcriptomic profiles. Finally, we systematically cross-correlated the lesion covariance networks with structural and functional connectivity networks derived from neuroimaging data of over 4000 healthy UK BioBank participants to uncover intrinsic brain networks that may that underlie tumour development. The three lesion covariance networks overlapped with the anterior, posterior and inferior horns of the lateral ventricles respectively, extending into the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. These locations were independently replicated. The first lesion covariance network, which overlapped with the anterior horn, was associated with low-grade, isocitrate dehydrogenase -mutated/1p19q-codeleted tumours, as well as a neural transcriptomic signature and improved overall survival. Each lesion covariance network significantly coincided with multiple structural and functional connectivity networks, with the first bearing an especially strong relationship with brain connectivity, consistent with its neural transcriptomic profile. Finally, we identified subcortical, periventricular structures with functional connectivity patterns to the cortex that significantly matched each lesion covariance network. In conclusion, we demonstrated replicable patterns of glioma localization with clinical relevance and spatial correspondence with large-scale functional and structural connectivity networks. These results are consistent with prior reports of glioma growth along white matter pathways, as well as evidence for the coordination of glioma stem cell proliferation by neuronal activity. Our findings describe how the locations of gliomas relate to their proposed subventricular origins, suggesting a model wherein periventricular brain connectivity guides tumour development

    Obesity associated with increased brain age from midlife.

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    Common mechanisms in aging and obesity are hypothesized to increase susceptibility to neurodegeneration, however, direct evidence in support of this hypothesis is lacking. We therefore performed a cross-sectional analysis of magnetic resonance image-based brain structure on a population-based cohort of healthy adults. Study participants were originally part of the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) and included 527 individuals aged 20-87 years. Cortical reconstruction techniques were used to generate measures of whole-brain cerebral white-matter volume, cortical thickness, and surface area. Results indicated that cerebral white-matter volume in overweight and obese individuals was associated with a greater degree of atrophy, with maximal effects in middle-age corresponding to an estimated increase of brain age of 10 years. There were no similar body mass index-related changes in cortical parameters. This study suggests that at a population level, obesity may increase the risk of neurodegeneration.This work was supported by the Bernard Wolfe Health Neuroscience Fund and the Wellcome Trust (grant number RNAG/259). The Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) research was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (grant number BB/H008217/1).This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.07.01

    Brain charts for the human lifespan

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    Over the past few decades, neuroimaging has become a ubiquitous tool in basic research and clinical studies of the human brain. However, no reference standards currently exist to quantify individual diferences in neuroimaging metrics over time, in contrast to growth charts for anthropometric traits such as height and weight1 . Here we assemble an interactive open resource to benchmark brain morphology derived from any current or future sample of MRI data (http://www.brainchart.io/). With the goal of basing these reference charts on the largest and most inclusive dataset available, acknowledging limitations due to known biases of MRI studies relative to the diversity of the global population, we aggregated 123,984 MRI scans, across more than 100 primary studies, from 101,457 human participants between 115 days post-conception to 100 years of age. MRI metrics were quantifed by centile scores, relative to non-linear trajectories2 of brain structural changes, and rates of change, over the lifespan. Brain charts identifed previously unreported neurodevelo pmental milestones3 , showed high stability of individuals across longitudinal assessments, and demonstrated robustness to technical and methodological diferences between primary studies. Centile scores showed increased heritability compared with non-centiled MRI phenotypes, and provided a standardized measure of atypical brain structure that revealed patterns of neuroanatomical variation across neurological and psychiatric disorders. In summary, brain charts are an essential step towards robust quantifcation of individual variation benchmarked to normative trajectories in multiple, commonly used neuroimaging phenotypes

    Associations of cannabis use disorder with cognition, brain structure, and brain function in African Americans

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    Although previous studies have highlighted associations of cannabis use with cognition and brain morphometry, critical questions remain with regard to the association between cannabis use and brain structural and functional connectivity. In a cross-sectional community sample of 205 African Americans (age 18‚Äď70) we tested for associations of cannabis use disorder (CUD, n = 57) with multi-domain cognitive measures and structural, diffusion, and resting state brain-imaging phenotypes. Post hoc model evidence was computed with Bayes factors (BF) and posterior probabilities of association (PPA) to account for multiple testing. General cognitive functioning, verbal intelligence, verbal memory, working memory, and motor speed were lower in the CUD group compared with nonusers (p \u3c .011; 1.9 \u3c BF \u3c 3,217). CUD was associated with altered functional connectivity in a network comprising the motor-hand region in the superior parietal gyri and the anterior insula (p \u3c .04). These differences were not explained by alcohol, other drug use, or education. No associations with CUD were observed in cortical thickness, cortical surface area, subcortical or cerebellar volumes (0.12 \u3c BF \u3c 1.5), or graph-theoretical metrics of resting state connectivity (PPA \u3c 0.01). In a large sample collected irrespective of cannabis used to minimize recruitment bias, we confirm the literature on poorer cognitive functioning in CUD, and an absence of volumetric brain differences between CUD and non-CUD. We did not find evidence for or against a disruption of structural connectivity, whereas we did find localized resting state functional dysconnectivity in CUD. There was sufficient proof, however, that organization of functional connectivity as determined via graph metrics does not differ between CUD and non-user group

    Imaging local genetic influences on cortical folding

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    Recent progress in deciphering mechanisms of human brain cortical folding leave unexplained whether spatially patterned genetic influences contribute to this folding. High-resolution in vivo brain MRI can be used to estimate genetic correlations (covariability due to shared genetic factors) in interregional cortical thickness, and biomechanical studies predict an influence of cortical thickness on folding patterns. However, progress has been hampered because shared genetic influences related to folding patterns likely operate at a scale that is much more local (cm) than that addressed in prior imaging studies. Here, we develop methodological approaches to examine local genetic influences on cortical thickness and apply these methods to two large, independent samples. We find that such influences are markedly heterogeneous in strength, and in some cortical areas are notably stronger in specific orientations relative to gyri or sulci. The overall, phenotypic local correlation has a significant basis in shared genetic factors and is highly symmetric between left and right cortical hemispheres. Furthermore, the degree of local cortical folding relates systematically with the strength of local correlations, which tends to be higher in gyral crests and lower in sulcal fundi. The relationship between folding and local correlations is stronger in primary sensorimotor areas and weaker in association areas such as prefrontal cortex, consistent with reduced genetic constraints on the structural topology of association cortex. Collectively, our results suggest that patterned genetic influences on cortical thickness, measurable at the scale of in vivo MRI, may be a causal factor in the development of cortical folding

    The anatomical distance of functional connections predicts brain network topology in health and schizophrenia.

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    The human brain is a topologically complex network embedded in anatomical space. Here, we systematically explored relationships between functional connectivity, complex network topology, and anatomical (Euclidean) distance between connected brain regions, in the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging brain networks of 20 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). Normal between-subject differences in average distance of connected edges in brain graphs were strongly associated with variation in topological properties of functional networks. In addition, a club or subset of connector hubs was identified, in lateral temporal, parietal, dorsal prefrontal, and medial prefrontal/cingulate cortical regions. In COS, there was reduced strength of functional connectivity over short distances especially, and therefore, global mean connection distance of thresholded graphs was significantly greater than normal. As predicted from relationships between spatial and topological properties of normal networks, this disorder-related proportional increase in connection distance was associated with reduced clustering and modularity and increased global efficiency of COS networks. Between-group differences in connection distance were localized specifically to connector hubs of multimodal association cortex. In relation to the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we argue that the data are consistent with the interpretation that spatial and topological disturbances of functional network organization could arise from excessive "pruning" of short-distance functional connections in schizophrenia.PEV is supported by the Medical Research Council (grant number MR/K020706/1). This work was supported by the Neuroscience in Psychiatry Network (NSPN) which is funded by a Wellcome Trust strategy award to the University of Cambridge and University College London. ETB is employed half-time by the University of Cambridge and half-time by GlaxoSmithKline; he holds stock in GSK.This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcpp.12365/full

    Measurement of the production of a W boson in association with a charm quark in pp collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    The production of a W boson in association with a single charm quark is studied using 4.6 fb‚ąí1 of pp collision data at s‚ąö = 7 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. In events in which a W boson decays to an electron or muon, the charm quark is tagged either by its semileptonic decay to a muon or by the presence of a charmed meson. The integrated and differential cross sections as a function of the pseudorapidity of the lepton from the W-boson decay are measured. Results are compared to the predictions of next-to-leading-order QCD calculations obtained from various parton distribution function parameterisations. The ratio of the strange-to-down sea-quark distributions is determined to be 0.96+0.26‚ąí0.30 at Q 2 = 1.9 GeV2, which supports the hypothesis of an SU(3)-symmetric composition of the light-quark sea. Additionally, the cross-section ratio ŌÉ(W + +c¬Į¬Į)/ŌÉ(W ‚ąí + c) is compared to the predictions obtained using parton distribution function parameterisations with different assumptions about the s‚ąís¬Į¬Į¬Į quark asymmetry

    Measurement of the tt¬Į production cross-section as a function of jet multiplicity and jet transverse momentum in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector