1,602 research outputs found

    sj-docx-1-aph-10.1177_10105395231226273 ‚Äď Supplemental material for Assessing the Feasibility of a Multifaceted Intervention Package for Improving Respiratory Health of Textile Workers: Findings From the MultiTex Pilot Study in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-aph-10.1177_10105395231226273 for Assessing the Feasibility of a Multifaceted Intervention Package for Improving Respiratory Health of Textile Workers: Findings From the MultiTex Pilot Study in Karachi, Pakistan by Asaad Ahmed Nafees, Yousaf Ali, Afreen Sadia, Natasha Shaukat, Muhammad Irfan, Zafar Fatmi, Iqbal Azam, Sara De Matteis, Peter Burney and Paul Cullinan in Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health</p

    Global Prevalence of Zika and Chikungunya Coinfection:A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses with significant pathogenicity, posing a substantial health and economic burden on a global scale. Moreover, ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection imposes additional therapeutic challenges as there is no specific treatment for ZIKV or CHIKV infection. While a growing number of studies have documented the ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection, there is currently a lack of conclusive reports on this coinfection. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the true statistics of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection in the global human population. Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar without limitation in terms of language or publication date. A total of 33 studies containing 41,460 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO under the registration number CRD42020176409. The pooled prevalence and confidence intervals of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection were computed using a random-effects model. The study estimated a combined global prevalence rate of 1.0% [95% CI: 0.7‚Äď1.2] for the occurrence of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection. The region of North America (Mexico, Haiti, and Nicaragua) and the country of Haiti demonstrated maximum prevalence rates of 2.8% [95% CI: 1.5‚Äď4.1] and 3.5% [95% CI: 0.2‚Äď6.8], respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of coinfection was found to be higher in the paediatric group (2.1% [95% CI: 0.0‚Äď4.2]) in comparison with the adult group (0.7% [95% CI: 0.2‚Äď1.1]). These findings suggest that the occurrence of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection varies geographically and by age group. The results of this meta-analysis will guide future investigations seeking to understand the underlying reasons for these variations and the causes of coinfection and to develop targeted prevention and control strategies

    Person-centred quality indicators are associated with unplanned care use following hospital discharge

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    Objective Performance indicators are used to evaluate the quality of healthcare services. The majority of these, however, are derived solely from administrative data and rarely incorporate feedback from patients who receive services. Recently, our research team developed person-centred quality indicators (PC-QIs), which were co-created with patients. It is unknown whether these PC-QIs are associated with unplanned healthcare use following discharge from hospital.Design A retrospective, cross-sectional study.Methods Survey responses were obtained from April 2014 to September 2020 using the Canadian Patient Experiences Survey - Inpatient Care instrument. Logistic regression models were used to predict the link between eight PC-QIs and two outcomes; unplanned readmissions within 30 days and emergency department visits within 7 days.Results A total of 114‚ÄČ129 surveys were included for analysis. 6.0% of respondents (n=6854) were readmitted within 30 days, and 9.9% (n=11‚ÄČ287) visited an emergency department within 7‚ÄČdays of their index discharge. In adjusted models, ‚Äėtop box‚Äô responses for communication between patients and physicians (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.82, 95%‚ÄČCI: 0.77 to 0.88), receiving information about taking medication (aOR=0.86, 95%‚ÄČCI: 0.80 to 0.92) and transition planning at hospital discharge (aOR=0.79, 95%‚ÄČCI: 0.73 to 0.85) were associated with lower odds of emergency department visit.Likewise, ‚Äėtop box‚Äô responses for overall experience (aOR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.93), communication between patients and physicians (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.80) and receiving information about taking medication (aOR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.98), were associated with lower odds of readmission.Conclusions This study demonstrates that patient reports of their in-hospital experiences may have value in predicting future healthcare use. In developing the PC-QIs, patients indicated which elements of their hospital care matter most to them, and our results show agreement between subjective and objective measures of care quality. Future research may explore how current readmission prediction models may be augmented by person-reported experiences

    Temperature-based prediction and validation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella infestation on cotton crop

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    Pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella infestation on cotton now a days found to be a major alarm to cotton crop in Pakistan. The effect of past and future temperatures climatic factors on the infestation rate of pink bollworm needs to be extensively studied. Field visits were organized in different areas across 17 main districts of Punjab, Pakistan, for eight consecutive years from 2012 to 2019. Based on past data, the pink bollworm infestation rate for the year 2040 was estimated. Our results showed an extensive infestation of pink bollworm on cotton throughout the visited locations between 0.1 and 35.7¬†% range above the economic threshold level, that cause reasonable cotton productivity losses. Based on the results of historical data of infestation rate, the nine of the 17 districts (53¬†%), Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Faisalabad, Jahang, Mianwali, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Rahimyar Khan, and Lodhran, showed significantly (p¬†<¬†0.05) higher pink bollworm infestation rate than the other cotton-growing areas. Moreover, the systematic increase level of pink bollworm infestation was predicted in 2040, especially in the five districts, Bhakar, Jahang, Khanewal, Faisalabad, and Vehari. Considering the importance of biological parameters, different temperature regimes (21¬†¬įC, 28¬†¬įC, and 35¬†¬įC) were tested for the validity of temperature-based prediction. Our results showed that growth capacity of P. gossypiella were increased at 28¬†¬įC. It revealed that, variation in weather due to current climatic condition with decreases of temperature increases P. gossypiella infestation on cotton crop. In this investigation, the effects of a severe outbreak of pink bollworm infections in Punjab's cotton-growing regions are discussed

    Effect of various treatment specimens on the DNA fragmentation of CCl4- treated rats.

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    Comparison of DNA fragmentation level of rats, belonged to 14 groups just before sacrifice. Each group consist of 10 rodents each with equal body mass index. The data were expressed as mean¬Īstandard deviation. X-axis represents the group distribution and y-axis represents LDH level of different groups. All abbreviation of different groups has been mentioned in Table 1. (*indicates statistically significant change where p<0.05, correlation is significant at a 95% confidence interval and **indicates highly significant change where p<0.01, correlation is significant at a 99% confidence interval).</p

    Photomicrographs (10√ó) of histopathological analysis of liver samples taken from the experimental rats.

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    (a) Liver architecture of rats treated with low dose of silymarin. (b) Liver architecture of rats treated with medium dose of silymarin. (c) Liver architecture of rats treated with high dose of silymarin. (d) Liver architecture of rats treated with low dose of G. procumbens. (e) Liver architecture of rats treated with medium dose of G. procumbens. (f) Liver architecture of rats treated with high dose of G. procumbens.</p

    Early recognition and management of maternal sepsis in Pakistan: A feasibility study of the implementation of FAST-M intervention

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    Objective: Maternal sepsis is the third leading cause of maternal mortality globally. WHO and collaborators developed a care bundle called FAST-M (Fluids, Antibiotics, Source identification and treatment, Transfer and Monitoring) for early identification and management of maternal sepsis in low-resource settings. This study aimed to determine feasibility of FAST-M intervention in a low-resource setting in Pakistan. The FAST-M intervention consists of maternal sepsis screening tools, treatment bundle and implementation programme.Design and setting: A feasibility study with before and after design was conducted in women with suspected maternal sepsis admitted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital Hyderabad. The study outcomes were compared between baseline and intervention phases. In the baseline phase (2 months), the existing sepsis care practices were recorded, followed by a training programme for healthcare providers on the application of FAST-M tools. These tools were implemented in the intervention phase (4 months) to assess any change in clinical practices compared with the baseline phase.Results: During the FAST-M implementation, 439 women were included in the study. 242/439 were suspected maternal infection cases, and 138/242 were women with suspected maternal sepsis. The FAST-M bundle was implemented in women with suspected maternal sepsis. Following the FAST-M intervention, significant changes were observed. Improvements were seen in the monitoring of oxygen saturation measurements (25.5% vs 100%; difference: 74%; 95% CI: 68.4% to 80.5%; p\u3c0.01), fetal heart rate assessment (58% vs 100%; difference: 42.0%; 95% CI: 33.7% to 50.3%; p‚ȧ0.01) and measurement of urine output (76.5% vs 100%; difference: 23.5%; 95% CI: 17.6% to 29.4%; p\u3c0.01). Women with suspected maternal sepsis received all components of the treatment bundle within 1 hour of sepsis recognition (0% vs 70.5%; difference: 70.5%; 95% CI: 60.4% to 80.6%; p\u3c0.01).Conclusion: Implementation of the FAST-M intervention was considered feasible and enhanced early identification and management of maternal sepsis at the study site. Trial registration number: ISRCTN17105658

    Search for resonant and nonresonant production of pairs of dijet resonances in proton-proton collisions at s \sqrt{s} = 13 TeV

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    A search for pairs of dijet resonances with the same mass is conducted in final states with at least four jets. Results are presented separately for the case where the four jet production proceeds via an intermediate resonant state and for nonresonant production. The search uses a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb‚ąí1^{‚ąí1} collected by the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at s \sqrt{s} = 13 TeV. Model-independent limits, at 95% confidence level, are reported on the production cross section of four-jet and dijet resonances. These first LHC limits on resonant pair production of dijet resonances via high mass intermediate states are applied to a signal model of diquarks that decay into pairs of vector-like quarks, excluding diquark masses below 7.6 TeV for a particular model scenario. There are two events in the tails of the distributions, each with a four-jet mass of 8 TeV and an average dijet mass of 2 TeV, resulting in local and global significances of 3.9 and 1.6 standard deviations, respectively, if interpreted as a signal. The nonresonant search excludes pair production of top squarks with masses between 0.50 TeV to 0.77 TeV, with the exception of a small interval between 0.52 and 0.58 TeV, for supersymmetric R-parity-violating decays to quark pairs, significantly extending previous limits. Here, the most significant excess above the predicted background occurs at an average dijet mass of 0.95 TeV, for which the local and global significances are 3.6 and 2.5 standard deviations, respectively.[graphic not available: see fulltext

    Dental crowding and spacing measurements of the tooth and arch on patients visiting UMDC

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    A stable and aesthetic set of teeth is ensured by proper alignment. Additionally, a correct tooth position offers excellent conditions for good health and the best possible dental care. However, harmony amongst tooth and arch proportions leads to the continuity and integrity of the dental arch. Any imbalance amongst these components puts a person at risk for dental crowding and spacing, both of which are bad for the function and health of the teeth. Objectives: The goal of the current study was to compare the tooth and arch diameters amongst dental arches that are normal, crowded, and spaced. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the UMDC Faisalabad orthodontic department. Patients and/or parents gave their informed consent before the start of therapy so that their records might be utilised for research. 120 dental casts of Pakistani subjects older than 13 years old were gathered as a sample. Dental casts that met the following inclusion criteria were chosen from the files of patients seeking orthodontic treatment: Pretreatment casts of patients with no past orthodontic treatment history, a permanent dentition that has fully emerged and allows accurate measurements of the crown dimensions, and excellent orthodontic casts.&nbsp

    Measurements of Higgs boson production in the decay channel with a pair of ŌĄ\tau leptons in proton‚Äďproton collisions at s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV