3,965 research outputs found

    Quantum Structures: An Attempt to Explain the Origin of their Appearance in Nature

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    We explain the quantum structure as due to the presence of two effects, (a) a real change of state of the entity under influence of the measurement and, (b) a lack of knowledge about a deeper deterministic reality of the measurement process. We present a quantum machine, where we can illustrate in a simple way how the quantum structure arises as a consequence of the two mentioned effects. We introduce a parameter epsilon that measures the size of the lack of knowledge on the measurement process, and by varying this parameter, we describe a continuous evolution from a quantum structure (maximal lack of knowledge) to a classical structure (zero lack of knowledge). We show that for intermediate values of epsilon we find a new type of structure, that is neither quantum nor classical. We apply the model that we have introduced to situations of lack of knowledge about the measurement process appearing in other regions of reality. More specifically we investigate the quantum-like structures that appear in the situation of psychological decision processes, where the subject is influenced during the testing, and forms some of his opinions during the testing process. Our conclusion is that in the light of this explanation, the quantum probabilities are epistemic and not ontological, which means that quantum mechanics is compatible with a determinism of the whole.Comment: 22 pages, 8 figure

    Interpreting Quantum Particles as Conceptual Entities

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    We elaborate an interpretation of quantum physics founded on the hypothesis that quantum particles are conceptual entities playing the role of communication vehicles between material entities composed of ordinary matter which function as memory structures for these quantum particles. We show in which way this new interpretation gives rise to a natural explanation for the quantum effects of interference and entanglement by analyzing how interference and entanglement emerge for the case of human concepts. We put forward a scheme to derive a metric based on similarity as a predecessor for the structure of 'space, time, momentum, energy' and 'quantum particles interacting with ordinary matter' underlying standard quantum physics, within the new interpretation, and making use of aspects of traditional quantum axiomatics. More specifically, we analyze how the effect of non-locality arises as a consequence of the confrontation of such an emerging metric type of structure and the remaining presence of the basic conceptual structure on the fundamental level, with the potential of being revealed in specific situations.Comment: 19 pages, 1 figur

    Using simple elastic bands to explain quantum mechanics: a conceptual review of two of Aert's machine-models

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    From the beginning of his research, the Belgian physicist Diederik Aerts has shown great creativity in inventing a number of concrete machine-models that have played an important role in the development of general mathematical and conceptual formalisms for the description of the physical reality. These models can also be used to demystify much of the strangeness in the behavior of quantum entities, by allowing to have a peek at what's going on - in structural terms - behind the "quantum scenes," during a measurement. In this author's view, the importance of these machine-models, and of the approaches they have originated, have been so far seriously underappreciated by the physics community, despite their success in clarifying many challenges of quantum physics. To fill this gap, and encourage a greater number of researchers to take cognizance of the important work of so-called Geneva-Brussels school, we describe and analyze in this paper two of Aerts' historical machine-models, whose operations are based on simple breakable elastic bands. The first one, called the spin quantum-machine, is able to replicate the quantum probabilities associated with the spin measurement of a spin-1/2 entity. The second one, called the \emph{connected vessels of water model} (of which we shall present here an alternative version based on elastics) is able to violate Bell's inequality, as coincidence measurements on entangled states can do.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figure

    Ephemeral properties and the illusion of microscopic particles

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    Founding our analysis on the Geneva-Brussels approach to quantum mechanics, we use conventional macroscopic objects as guiding examples to clarify the content of two important results of the beginning of twentieth century: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen's reality criterion and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. We then use them in combination to show that our widespread belief in the existence of microscopic particles is only the result of a cognitive illusion, as microscopic particles are not particles, but are instead the ephemeral spatial and local manifestations of non-spatial and non-local entities

    The Guppy Effect as Interference

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    People use conjunctions and disjunctions of concepts in ways that violate the rules of classical logic, such as the law of compositionality. Specifically, they overextend conjunctions of concepts, a phenomenon referred to as the Guppy Effect. We build on previous efforts to develop a quantum model that explains the Guppy Effect in terms of interference. Using a well-studied data set with 16 exemplars that exhibit the Guppy Effect, we developed a 17-dimensional complex Hilbert space H that models the data and demonstrates the relationship between overextension and interference. We view the interference effect as, not a logical fallacy on the conjunction, but a signal that out of the two constituent concepts, a new concept has emerged.Comment: 10 page

    Quantum Machine and SR Approach: a Unified Model

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    The Geneva-Brussels approach to quantum mechanics (QM) and the semantic realism (SR) nonstandard interpretation of QM exhibit some common features and some deep conceptual differences. We discuss in this paper two elementary models provided in the two approaches as intuitive supports to general reasonings and as a proof of consistency of general assumptions, and show that Aerts' quantum machine can be embodied into a macroscopic version of the microscopic SR model, overcoming the seeming incompatibility between the two models. This result provides some hints for the construction of a unified perspective in which the two approaches can be properly placed.Comment: 21 pages, 5 figures. Introduction and Conclusions improved, minor corrections in several sections. Accepted for publication in Foundations of Physic

    Meaning-focused and Quantum-inspired Information Retrieval

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    In recent years, quantum-based methods have promisingly integrated the traditional procedures in information retrieval (IR) and natural language processing (NLP). Inspired by our research on the identification and application of quantum structures in cognition, more specifically our work on the representation of concepts and their combinations, we put forward a 'quantum meaning based' framework for structured query retrieval in text corpora and standardized testing corpora. This scheme for IR rests on considering as basic notions, (i) 'entities of meaning', e.g., concepts and their combinations and (ii) traces of such entities of meaning, which is how documents are considered in this approach. The meaning content of these 'entities of meaning' is reconstructed by solving an 'inverse problem' in the quantum formalism, consisting of reconstructing the full states of the entities of meaning from their collapsed states identified as traces in relevant documents. The advantages with respect to traditional approaches, such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), are discussed by means of concrete examples.Comment: 11 page

    Estimating stellar oscillation-related parameters and their uncertainties with the moment method

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    The moment method is a well known mode identification technique in asteroseismology (where `mode' is to be understood in an astronomical rather than in a statistical sense), which uses a time series of the first 3 moments of a spectral line to estimate the discrete oscillation mode parameters l and m. The method, contrary to many other mode identification techniques, also provides estimates of other important continuous parameters such as the inclination angle alpha, and the rotational velocity v_e. We developed a statistical formalism for the moment method based on so-called generalized estimating equations (GEE). This formalism allows the estimation of the uncertainty of the continuous parameters taking into account that the different moments of a line profile are correlated and that the uncertainty of the observed moments also depends on the model parameters. Furthermore, we set up a procedure to take into account the mode uncertainty, i.e., the fact that often several modes (l,m) can adequately describe the data. We also introduce a new lack of fit function which works at least as well as a previous discriminant function, and which in addition allows us to identify the sign of the azimuthal order m. We applied our method to the star HD181558, using several numerical methods, from which we learned that numerically solving the estimating equations is an intensive task. We report on the numerical results, from which we gain insight in the statistical uncertainties of the physical parameters involved in the moment method.Comment: The electronic online version from the publisher can be found at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-9876.2005.00487.

    Multiperiodicity in the large-amplitude rapidly-rotating ÎČ\beta Ceph ei star HD 203664

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    We perform a seismic study of the young massive ÎČ\beta Cephei star HD 203664 with the goal to constrain its interior structure. Our study is based on a time series of 328 new Geneva 7-colour photometric data of the star spread over 496.8 days. The data confirm the frequency of the dominant mode of the star which we refine to f1=6.02885f_1=6.02885 c d−1^{-1}. The mode has a large amplitude of 37 mmag in V and is unambiguously identified as a dipole mode (ℓ=2\ell=2) from its amplitude ratios and non-adiabatic computations. Besides f1f_1, we discover two additional new frequencies in the star with amplitudes above 4σ4\sigma: f2=6.82902f_2=6.82902 c d−1^{-1} and f3=4.81543f_3=4.81543 c d−1^{-1} or one of their daily aliases. The amplitudes of these two modes are only between 3 and 4 mmag which explains why they were not detected before. Their amplitude ratios are too uncertain for mode identification. We show that the observed oscillation spectrum of HD 203664 is compatible with standard stellar models but that we have insufficient information for asteroseismic inferences. Among the large-amplitude ÎČ\beta Cephei stars, HD 203664 stands out as the only one rotating at a significant fraction of its critical rotation velocity (∌40\sim 40%).Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in A&A (Astronomy & Astrophysics

    Estimating Stellar Parameters from Spectra using a Hierarchical Bayesian Approach

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    A method is developed for fitting theoretically predicted astronomical spectra to an observed spectrum. Using a hierarchical Bayesian principle, the method takes both systematic and statistical measurement errors into account, which has not been done before in the astronomical literature. The goal is to estimate fundamental stellar parameters and their associated uncertainties. The non-availability of a convenient deterministic relation between stellar parameters and the observed spectrum, combined with the computational complexities this entails, necessitate the curtailment of the continuous Bayesian model to a reduced model based on a grid of synthetic spectra. A criterion for model selection based on the so-called predictive squared error loss function is proposed, together with a measure for the goodness-of-fit between observed and synthetic spectra. The proposed method is applied to the infrared 2.38--2.60 \mic ISO-SWS data (Infrared Space Observatory - Short Wavelength Spectrometer) of the star α\alpha Bootis, yielding estimates for the stellar parameters: effective temperature \Teff = 4230 ±\pm 83 K, gravity log⁥\log g = 1.50 ±\pm 0.15 dex, and metallicity [Fe/H] = −0.30±0.21-0.30 \pm 0.21 dex.Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, 5 tables. Accepted for publication in MNRA
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