3,480 research outputs found

    The Origin of Fluorine: Abundances in AGB Carbon Stars Revisited

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    Revised spectroscopic parameters for the HF molecule and a new CN line list in the 2.3 mu region have been recently available, allowing a revision of the F content in AGB stars. AGB carbon stars are the only observationally confirmed sources of fluorine. Nowadays there is not a consensus on the relevance of AGB stars in its Galactic chemical evolution. The aim of this article is to better constrain the contribution of these stars with a more accurate estimate of their fluorine abundances. Using new spectroscopic tools and LTE spectral synthesis, we redetermine fluorine abundances from several HF lines in the K-band in a sample of Galactic and extragalactic AGB carbon stars of spectral types N, J and SC spanning a wide range of metallicities. On average, the new derived fluorine abundances are systematically lower by 0.33 dex with respect to previous determinations. This may derive from a combination of the lower excitation energies of the HF lines and the larger macroturbulence parameters used here as well as from the new adopted CN line list. Yet, theoretical nucleosynthesis models in AGB stars agree with the new fluorine determinations at solar metallicities. At low metallicities, an agreement between theory and observations can be found by handling in a different way the radiative/convective interface at the base of the convective envelope. New fluorine spectroscopic measurements agree with theoretical models at low and at solar metallicity. Despite this, complementary sources are needed to explain its observed abundance in the solar neighbourhood.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted in A&

    Fluorine in AGB Carbon Stars Revisited

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    A reanalysis of the fluorine abundance in three Galactic AGB carbon stars (TX Psc, AQ Sgr and R Scl) has been performed from the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3358 ÎŒ\mum. High-resolution (R∌50000\sim 50000) and high signal to noise spectra obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph and the VLT telescope or from the NOAO archive (for TX Psc) have been used. Our abundance analysis uses the latest generation of MARCS model atmospheres for cool carbon rich stars. Using spectral synthesis in LTE we derive for these stars fluorine abundances that are systematically lower by ∌0.8\sim 0.8 dex in average with respect to the sole previous estimates by Jorissen, Smith & Lambert (1992). The possible reasons of this discrepancy are explored. We conclude that the difference may rely on the blending with C-bearing molecules (CN and C2_2) that were not properly taken into account in the former study. The new F abundances are in better agreement with the prediction of full network stellar models of low mass AGB stars. These models also reproduce the ss-process elements distribution in the sampled stars. This result, if confirmed in a larger sample of AGB stars, might alleviate the current difficulty to explain the largest [F/O] ratios found by Jorissen et al. In particular, it may not be necessary to search for alternative nuclear chains affecting the production of F in AGB stars.Comment: 25 pages, 3 figures. to be appear in The Astrophysical Journal (Jan 2009 issue

    High resolution optical spectroscopy of IRAS 09425-6040 (=GLMP 260)

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    We present high resolution optical spectroscopic observations of IRAS 09425-6040, a peculiar, extremely red, C-rich AGB star showing prominent O-rich dust features in its ISO infrared spectrum attributed to crystalline silicates. Our analysis shows that IRAS 09425-6040 is indeed a C-rich star slightly enriched in lithium (log (Li/H) + 12 ~ 0.7) with a low 12C/13C = 15+-6 ratio. We also found some evidence that it may be enriched in s-elements. Combining our results with other observational data taken from the literature we conclude that the star is possibly an intermediate-mass TP-AGB star (M > 3 M_sun) close to the end of its AGB evolution which may have only very recently experienced a radical change in its chemistry, turning into a carbon-rich AGB star.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Chemical evolution of star clusters

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    I discuss the chemical evolution of star clusters, with emphasis on old globular clusters, in relation to their formation histories. Globular clusters clearly formed in a complex fashion, under markedly different conditions from any younger clusters presently known. Those special conditions must be linked to the early formation epoch of the Galaxy and must not have occurred since. While a link to the formation of globular clusters in dwarf galaxies has been suggested, present-day dwarf galaxies are not representative of the gravitational potential wells within which the globular clusters formed. Instead, a formation deep within the proto-Galaxy or within dark-matter minihaloes might be favoured. Not all globular clusters may have formed and evolved similarly. In particular, we may need to distinguish Galactic halo from Galactic bulge clusters.Comment: 27 pages, 2 figures. To appear as invited review article in a special issue of the Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. A: Ch. 6 "Star clusters as tracers of galactic star-formation histories" (ed. R. de Grijs). Fully peer reviewed. LaTeX, requires rspublic.cls style fil

    Sorption kinetics and intraparticulate diffusivities of Cd, Pb and Zn ions on maize cob

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    The kinetics of sorption and intraparticulate diffusivities of Zn, Cd and Pb using maize cob was studied. The amount of the metal ions adsorbed increased with time. The highest sorption rates of the three metal ions were 71% for Z2+, 32% for Cd2+, and 30% for Pb2+. The fractional attainment of equilibrium showed that Zn2+ reached equilibrium before Pb2+ ion and then Cd2+ ion. This study showed that the sorption of Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions on maize cob is particle diffusion controlled. The rate coefficients for particle diffusion were 0.07 min-1 for Zn2+, 0.053min-1 for Pb2+ and 0.081min-1 for Cd2+.African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (6), pp. 509-512, 200

    Chemical analysis of carbon stars in the Local Group. II. The Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics, 481, pp. 161-168, http://dx.doi.org./10.1051/0004-6361:20079114International audienc

    Galactic Cosmic Rays from Superbubbles and the Abundances of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron

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    In this article we study the galactic evolution of the LiBeB elements within the framework of a detailed model of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy that includes galactic cosmic ray nucleosynthesis by particles accelerated in superbubbles. The chemical composition of the superbubble consists of varying proportions of ISM and freshly supernova synthesized material. The observational trends of 6 LiBeB evolution are nicely reproduced by models in which GCR come from a mixture of 25% of supernova material with 75% of ISM, except for 6 Li, for which maybe an extra source is required at low metallicities. To account for 7 Li evolution several additional sources have been considered (neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis, nova outbursts, C-stars). The model fulfills the energetic requirements for GCR acceleration.Comment: 25 pages, 9 figures. Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    Evolution, nucleosynthesis and yields of low mass AGB stars at different metallicities (II): the FRUITY database

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    By using updated stellar low mass stars models, we can systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in AGB stars, when these objects experience recurrent thermal pulses and third dredge-up episodes. In this paper we present the database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: the FRUITY (FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables & Yields) database. An interactive web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 < M/Msun < 3.0 and metallicities 1e-3 < Z < 2e-2, is discussed here. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parametrization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynthesis scenario is checked by comparing the theoretical [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] ratios to those obtained from the available abundance analysis of s-enhanced stars. On the average, the variation with the metallicity of these spectroscopic indexes is well reproduced by theoretical models, although the predicted spread at a given metallicity is substantially smaller than the observed one. Possible explanations for such a difference are briefly discussed. An independent check of the third dredge-up efficiency is provided by the C-stars luminosity function. Consequently, theoretical C-stars luminosity functions for the Galactic disk and the Magellanic Clouds have been derived. We generally find a good agreement with observations.Comment: Accepted for Publication on The Astrophysical Journal Supplement