94,049,968 research outputs found

### Magnetorheological landing gear: 2. Validation using experimental data

Aircraft landing gears are subjected to a wide range of excitation conditions with conflicting damping requirements. A novel solution to this problem is to implement semi-active damping using magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In part 1 of this contribution, a methodology was developed that enables the geometry of a flow mode MR valve to be optimized within the constraints of an existing passive landing gear. The device was designed to be optimal in terms of its impact performance, which was demonstrated using numerical simulations of the complete landing gear system. To perform the simulations, assumptions were made regarding some of the parameters used in the MR shock strut model. In particular, the MR fluid's yield stress, viscosity, and bulk modulus properties were not known accurately. Therefore, the present contribution aims to validate these parameters experimentally, via the manufacture and testing of an MR shock strut. The gas exponent, which is used to model the shock strut's nonlinear stiffness, is also investigated. In general, it is shown that MR fluid property data at high shear rates are required in order to accurately predict performance prior to device manufacture. Furthermore, the study illustrates how fluid compressibility can have a significant influence on the device time constant, and hence on potential control strategies

### Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and
graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I
superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily
available 25 liter liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a
magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium
cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple
analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic
levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The
experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high
temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation
results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics

### Normal Mode Determination of Perovskite Crystal Structures with Octahedral Rotations: Theory and Applications

Nuclear site analysis methods are used to enumerate the normal modes of
$ABX_{3}$ perovskite polymorphs with octahedral rotations. We provide the modes
of the fourteen subgroups of the cubic aristotype describing the Glazer
octahedral tilt patterns, which are obtained from rotations of the $BX_{6}$
octahedra with different sense and amplitude about high symmetry axes. We
tabulate all normal modes of each tilt system and specify the contribution of
each atomic species to the mode displacement pattern, elucidating the physical
meaning of the symmetry unique modes. We have systematically generated 705
schematic atomic displacement patterns for the normal modes of all 15 (14
rotated + 1 unrotated) Glazer tilt systems. We show through some illustrative
examples how to use these tables to identify the octahedral rotations,
symmetric breathing, and first-order Jahn-Teller anti-symmetric breathing
distortions of the $BX_{6}$ octahedra, and the associated Raman selection
rules. We anticipate that these tables and schematics will be useful in
understanding the lattice dynamics of bulk perovskites and would serve as
reference point in elucidating the atomic origin of a wide range of physical
properties in synthetic perovskite thin films and superlattices.Comment: 17 pages, 3 figures, 17 tables. Supporting information accessed
through link specified within manuscrip

### Exploring the neutron dripline two neutrons at a time: The first observations of the 26O and 16Be ground state resonances

The two-neutron unbound ground state resonances of $^{26}$O and $^{16}$Be
were populated using one-proton knockout reactions from $^{27}$F and $^{17}$B
beams. A coincidence measurement of 3-body system (fragment + n + n) allowed
for the decay energy of the unbound nuclei to be reconstructed. A low energy
resonance, $<$ 200 keV, was observed for the first time in the $^{24}$O + n + n
system and assigned to the ground state of $^{26}$O. The $^{16}$Be ground state
resonance was observed at 1.35 MeV. The 3-body correlations of the $^{14}$Be +
n + n system were compared to simulations of a phase-space, sequential, and
dineutron decay. The strong correlations in the n-n system from the
experimental data could only be reproduced by the dineutron decay simulation
providing the first evidence for a dineutron-like decay.Comment: Invited Talk given at the 11th International Conference on
Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012), San Antonio, Texas, USA, May 27-June 1,
2012. To appear in the NN2012 Proceedings in Journal of Physics: Conference
Series (JPCS

### Micro-plasticity and intermittent dislocation activity in a simplified micro structural model

Here we present a model to study the micro-plastic regime of a stress-strain
curve. In this model an explicit dislocation population represents the mobile
dislocation content and an internal shear-stress field represents a mean-field
description of the immobile dislocation content. The mobile dislocations are
constrained to a simple dipolar mat geometry and modelled via a dislocation
dynamics algorithm, whilst the shear-stress field is chosen to be a sinusoidal
function of distance along the mat direction. The latter, defined by a periodic
length and a shear-stress amplitude, represents a pre-existing micro-structure.
These model parameters, along with the mobile dislocation density, are found to
admit a diversity of micro-plastic behaviour involving intermittent plasticity
in the form of a scale-free avalanche phenomenon, with an exponent for the
strain burst magnitude distribution similar to those seen in experiment and
more complex dislocation dynamics simulations.Comment: 30 pages, 12 figures, to appear in "Modelling and Simulation in
Materials Science and Engineering

### General polarization modes for the Rosen gravitational wave

Strong-field gravitational plane waves are often represented in either the
Rosen or Brinkmann forms. While these two metric ansatze are related by a
coordinate transformation, so that they should describe essentially the same
physics, they rather puzzlingly seem to treat polarization states quite
differently. Both ansatze deal equally well with + and X linear polarizations,
but there is a qualitative difference in they way they deal with circular,
elliptic, and more general polarization states. In this article we will develop
a general formalism for dealing with arbitrary polarization states in the Rosen
form of the gravitational wave metric, representing an arbitrary polarization
by a trajectory in a suitably defined two dimensional hyperbolic plane.Comment: V1: 12 pages, no figures. V2: still 12 pages, reformatted. Minor
technical edits, discussion of Riemann tensor added, two references added, no
significant physics changes. This version accepted for publication in
Classical and Quantum Gravit

### Time varying gravitational constant G via the entropic force

If the uncertainty principle applies to the Verlinde entropic idea, it leads
to a new term in the Newton's second law of mechanics in the Planck's scale.
This curious velocity dependence term inspires a frictional feature of the
gravity. In this short letter we address that this new term modifies the
effective mass and the Newtonian constant as the time dependence quantities.
Thus we must have a running on the value of the effective mass on the particle
mass $m$ near the holographic screen and the $G$. This result has a nigh
relation with the Dirac hypothesis about the large numbers hypothesis (L.N.H.)
[1]. We propose that the corrected entropic terms via Verlinde idea can be
brought as a holographic evidence for the authenticity of the Dirac idea.Comment: Accepted for publication in "Communications in Theoretical Physics
(CTP)",Major revisio

### Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement
settings, and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task.
We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of
parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than
the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238885
new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in
particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and
two measurement settings that are not of the
Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.Comment: Joined the associated website as an ancillary file, 17 pages, 1
figure, 1 tabl

### How good are your fits? Unbinned multivariate goodness-of-fit tests in high energy physics

Multivariate analyses play an important role in high energy physics. Such
analyses often involve performing an unbinned maximum likelihood fit of a
probability density function (p.d.f.) to the data. This paper explores a
variety of unbinned methods for determining the goodness of fit of the p.d.f.
to the data. The application and performance of each method is discussed in the
context of a real-life high energy physics analysis (a Dalitz-plot analysis).
Several of the methods presented in this paper can also be used for the
non-parametric determination of whether two samples originate from the same
parent p.d.f. This can be used, e.g., to determine the quality of a detector
Monte Carlo simulation without the need for a parametric expression of the
efficiency.Comment: 32 pages, 12 figure

### Constraining dark energy fluctuations with supernova correlations

We investigate constraints on dark energy fluctuations using type Ia
supernovae. If dark energy is not in the form of a cosmological constant, that
is if the equation of state is not equal to -1, we expect not only temporal,
but also spatial variations in the energy density. Such fluctuations would
cause local variations in the universal expansion rate and directional
dependences in the redshift-distance relation. We present a scheme for relating
a power spectrum of dark energy fluctuations to an angular covariance function
of standard candle magnitude fluctuations. The predictions for a
phenomenological model of dark energy fluctuations are compared to
observational data in the form of the measured angular covariance of Hubble
diagram magnitude residuals for type Ia supernovae in the Union2 compilation.
The observational result is consistent with zero dark energy fluctuations.
However, due to the limitations in statistics, current data still allow for
quite general dark energy fluctuations as long as they are in the linear
regime.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figures, matches the published versio

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