486,244 research outputs found

    Understanding the Sacred Undergarments: An Outsider\u27s Perspective

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    In the United States, clothing is seen as the expression of the person who is wearing it, and people have almost unlimited options for what to put on their body. Compared to early-twentieth-century standards, American culture now seems to allow most adults to dress much more provocatively because of the idea of individual freedom. One group that is openly fighting against the lack of standardized dress is the Latter-day Saints (the Mormon Church). Among the standards that the LDS Church has set for its members is that they are mandated to wear sacred undergarments. These clothing standards are set up to ensure that Mormons remain sexually chaste, both men and women, until they are married and sealed in the temple. These clothing standards are intended to remove any form of sexuality to the bedroom and limit it to private interactions between a husband and a wife. However, while clothing standards are established for both men and women, it is clear that the standards are stricter for women. These standards are harsher for women because the focus is on women’s bodies. Women control the sexual standards for both men and women of the church, so women’s bodies need to be covered up in order to protect the LDS society

    Boundary tastes at work: the gendered effect of authority positions in the workplace on taste in clothing and food

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    In this article, we test three hypotheses about the gendered effect of authority positions in the workplace on tastes in the areas of food and clothing. We use the micro-interactionist model of Randall Collins to formulate new hypotheses on the development of aesthetic and practical taste patterns, as described by Pierre Bourdieu. This leads to the following hypotheses: (1) people in superordinate positions will develop more aesthetic tastes; (2) men in subordinate positions will develop more practical tastes; and (3) women in subordinate positions will develop more aesthetic tastes. Our results show that there is a significant effect of being in a superordinate position on food preferences but not on clothing preferences. Among people in subordinate positions, women score higher than men on a fashion taste in clothing, lower on practical taste in clothing, and lower on a conventional taste in food

    Unbuttoned: : The interaction between provocativeness of female work attire and occupational status

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    This document is the Accepted Manuscript. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-015-0450-8.Gender-biased standards in United Kingdom (UK) workplaces continue to exist. Women experience gender discrimination in judgements of competence, even by other women. Clothing cues can subtly influence professional perceptions of women. The aim of this study was to investigate how minor manipulations to female office clothing affect the judgements of competence of them by other UK females and to examine whether such effects differ with occupational status. One group of female university students (n = 54) and one group of employed females (n = 90), all from London and the East of England, rated images of faceless female targets, on a global competence measure derived from six competence ratings (of intelligence, confidence, trustworthiness, responsibility, authority, and organisation). The dress style was conservative but varied slightly by skirt length and the number of buttons unfastened on a blouse. The female targets were ascribed different occupational roles, varying by status (high – senior manager, or low - receptionist). Participants viewed the images for a maximum of 5 s before rating them. Overall participants rated the senior manager less favourably when her clothing was more provocative, but more favourably when dressed more conservatively (longer skirt, buttoned up blouse). This interaction between clothing and status was not present for the receptionist. Employed participants also rated females lower than did student participants. We conclude that even subtle changes to clothing style can contribute towards negative impressions of the competence of women who hold higher status positions in a UK cultural contextPeer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Teamwork and Gendered Work Cultures: The Case of Finland

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    In this article I focus on women workers’ experiences of transformation from line work to teamworking in Finnish clothing companies in the 1990s and also show what happened after this transformation in the clothing branch. The undertone of it is rather melancholic. Following an initial period of intensive and successful development, clothing work was moved from Finland to countries of cheap labour, such as Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia, and even China. In this type of network manufacturing, the development of modern information and communication technologies played a central role. My aim is to present the standpoint of women clothing workers in this process. The main body of the empirical data of my study consists of dialogues with clothing workers, union representatives, supervisors and managers. I also make use of my fieldwork notes, memos and research diaries from three companies over a period of five years. Furthermore, in the background lie the action research material from Scandinavian type work conferences and the survey material of an extensive mail inquiry that covered the whole branch in Finland. My own research started in 1991 as a mail inquiry and then continued as a case study in companies from 1992 to 2000, by employing action research and ethnographic methodologies.gender; teamworking; clothing industry; Finland

    Identity Through Clothing: Argentinian vs. American Women

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    According to Roach-Higgins, Eicher, and Johnson (1995), “individuals acquire identity through social, physical, and biological settings” (pg.12). When acquiring identity, culture plays a vital role. Because of numerous influences on identity, a conflict exists for those who identify with more than one culture. This study focuses specifically on the problems of women who identify both as Argentinian and American. The purpose of this creative project was to create an outfit that could be worn by an Argentinian/American woman in the presence of family and friends, regardless of culture, and not feel that she is disregarding societal norms of either culture. Data of what is culturally accepted were collected from WGSN, an industry fashion trend website, news articles, and two popular social media platforms, Pinterest and Instagram. After conducting a study of street styles from each country, lists of similarities and differences were noted. From these findings, an outfit was designed and created that could meet the standards of a woman from Argentina or America, in the author’s opinion. A future survey of other Argentinian and American women is recommended to find conclusive, quantitative data to determine if this garment actually does satisfy the purpose of this creative project

    Gender and Religious Dress at the European Court of Human Rights: A Comparison of \u3ci\u3eȘahin v. Turkey\u3c/i\u3e and \u3ci\u3eArslan v. Turkey\u3c/i\u3e

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    This paper examines the regulation of the religious dress of men and women in two decisions by the European Court of Human Rights: Şahin v. Turkey and Arslan v. Turkey. In Şahin, the Court upheld a ban on the wearing of the Islamic headscarf, an article of clothing worn exclusively by women, at a public university. In Arslan, the Court rejected a ban on the wearing of a type of religious uniform worn only by men who were members of a politically subversive Islamic group. In both cases, the Court asserted that its decision was necessary to protect the rights and freedoms of others. This Article argues that reading these two cases together reveals a gendered approach to the regulation of religious clothing, with the Court endowing the religious dress of women with a political significance it does not extend to men’s religious dress. Further, a comparative reading demonstrates that the Court is less willing to accept women’s stated reasons for adopting religious dress, thus curtailing women\u27s agency in the name of promoting gender equality

    Functional textile preferences of elderly people

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    Aging is an inevitable stage of lifetime bringing along physical and emotional deterioration. Rate of aging population in the world has been constantly rising with the contribution of technological improvements on life quality, and medical services. Depending on the unavoidable physical and emotional changes of aging human body, clothing preferences and needs become different then needs of other textile and clothing consumer groups. Textile and clothing products are one of the basic needs of human kind. Sufficient and appropriate clothing is especially important for life quality improvement at elderly stage of human life. New generation functional and smart textile and clothing products bring new opportunities to improve life quality of elderly people with such wide range products of mobility support clothing, medical help, hygiene, and health monitoring textile and clothing products. This survey based research work is aimed to search the awareness level and priority of society about the functional and smart textile products for elderly people. It has been found that gender difference has significant influence on preference level of functional textile products, where women has higher interest then men about functional textiles. It can also be stated that comfort properties are primarily preferred preferences comparing to the fashion and functionality properties of textile products. © 2015, Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. All rights reserved

    The development of clothing concepts in response to analysis of changing gendered social attitudes

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    The relationship of gender and clothing were widely discussed by theorists, and fashion collections illustrated this thinking. This study aimed to address one area of this relationship, by conducting practice-based research to develop garments for women who wear men’s clothing. The study responds to real insights from the women themselves through qualitative interviews. This study aimed to understand why women choose to wear men’s clothing and to use this to question gender assignment in clothing, in order to develop design concepts for the development of clothing for this specific group of women. This interdisciplinary practice-based study combined phenomenological thinking and practice with theory to engage more deeply with why women choose to wear men’s clothing. The Victorian square cut shirt became pivotal to the process of design and accorded with preferences for large shapes and interesting proportion. The Pit brow study highlighted how historical gender roles can aid in the understanding of gendered clothing now. Surveys asking about the gendered perception of clothing on and off the body found significantly that clothing is perceived differently when not on a body. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women answering a call for women who wear men’s clothing. Experimental design concepts were developed though combining, research inputs and an output culminating in a selection of garments was produced. The practice found that space between the body and clothing provides feelings of well-being, through comfort, space and coverage of the body. This study contributes to knowledge of garment design practice, by recording and analysing the complex thinking behind garment design for women who wear men’s clothing for fashion. Experimental responsive making, can create new and effective design methods through an intra-active relationship with fabric and an openness to the haphazard. The process of research and design combined with theory has defined preferences for the development of clothing for the group of women. The conceptual model, Women’s clothing preferences. Wellbeing in relation to gender and body image, records the final preferences and is a resource for future use for the design of clothing for all people. Gender assignment in clothing from the perspective of the viewer was found to be variable and influenced by personal and situational aspects, which were 4 | P a g e changeable. For the women participants, gendered clothing for the wearer, was found to be selected primarily by merit of wear properties. Women who wear men’s clothing do not wish to be defined by their gendered body, but by a sense of who they are

    \u27Vain Unsettled Fashions\u27: The Early Durham Friends and Popular Culture c. 1660-1725

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    Participation in popular, or worldly, culture was a moot point for the early Friends. Although they were not encouraged to do so many still took part in aspects of male or female culture, but experienced tension between Quaker and \u27carnal\u27 ideals of behaviour. Female Friends were expected to limit their clothing according to the edicts of their Yearly Meeting, although female culture treated clothing as a medium of exchange and\u27 gifting clothing was central to female social life. This proved difficult for women such as Sarah Kirkby (d.1692) of Auckland, a fabric seller, who traded with non-Quakers and could not have avoided the expectation that she would participate in aspects of female culture. Even Margaret Fell\u27s daughters succumbed, as their household book testifies, although Durham Quakers and the Fells\u27 meeting at Swarthmore agreed that silk weaving and selling lace respectively were inappropriate trades for a Friend.\u27 From the 1680s Women\u27s Quarterly Meetings sent epistles on the subject to Monthly and Preparative Meetings, who reported back their findings. At almost every women\u27s meeting lists of forbidden garments were noted and their wearers, usually young women, were reprimanded. Female Friends who deviated from this rule were likely to be condemned as \u27disorderly walkers\u27, and the censure of their families was expected. Such clothing was not merely seen as \u27light\u27 or wasteful, but deeply immoral as it sullied the image male Friends had constructed of women as symbols of the purity of the restored Church. Men were treated with more sympathy than women if they strayed, and the temptations they experienced were more often related to the alehouse than to clothing. Women were sometimes accused of drunkenness and disorder. A disorderly wife was seen as bringing dishonour to Quakerism, as it gave the impression that Quaker men could not control their wives, even though they had arguably already taken steps to do so by instituting separate meetings and limiting the activities of female ministers. However, wives of alcoholic husbands were advised to treat them with respect, not contempt. Friends seem to have appreciated the tensions faced by many men, who had formerly participated in alehouse culture alongside their peers, and found it difficult to break this tie to their old lifestyles. By the early eighteenth century the \u27perruque controversy\u27 led Quaker men also to consider their own appearances and condemn the use of wigs as bodily adornment. Although this may seem to suggest equality, alongside their uniform rejection of ostentation surrounding any rite of passage regardless of the participants\u27 social status, it ultimately led to John Wesley\u27s condemnation of Quaker costume as a \u27uniform\u27. This also gave rise to the belief that there was a uniformity of thinking, which had abandoned the originality of earlier thought, most notably their justification of women preachers
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