45,185 research outputs found

    Economia colaborativa

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    A importância de se proceder à análise dos principais desafios jurídicos que a economia colaborativa coloca – pelas implicações que as mudanças de paradigma dos modelos de negócios e dos sujeitos envolvidos suscitam − é indiscutível, correspondendo à necessidade de se fomentar a segurança jurídica destas práticas, potenciadoras de crescimento económico e bem-estar social. O Centro de Investigação em Justiça e Governação (JusGov) constituiu uma equipa multidisciplinar que, além de juristas, integra investigadores de outras áreas, como a economia e a gestão, dos vários grupos do JusGov – embora com especial participação dos investigadores que integram o grupo E-TEC (Estado, Empresa e Tecnologia) – e de outras prestigiadas instituições nacionais e internacionais, para desenvolver um projeto neste domínio, com o objetivo de identificar os problemas jurídicos que a economia colaborativa suscita e avaliar se já existem soluções para aqueles, refletindo igualmente sobre a conveniência de serem introduzidas alterações ou se será mesmo necessário criar nova regulamentação. O resultado desta investigação é apresentado nesta obra, com o que se pretende fomentar a continuação do debate sobre este tema.Esta obra é financiada por fundos nacionais através da FCT — Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., no âmbito do Financiamento UID/05749/202

    Strange bedfellows ngos and businesses move from conflict to cooperation

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    The struggle of NGOs to promote sustainable behavior from companies has successfully gained public sympathy, and has triggered a rising number of international voluntary agreements, public policy initiatives, and even state regulations. Some companies have worked their way out of stigmatization and tried to become responsible corporate citizens. While plenty of other companies are still trying to evade the CSR debate and the reporting standards therein, others have adjusted their structures to adopt them. Although this tends to raise costs on a short-term basis, most of the CSRfriendly companies have managed to economically outperform the deniers in the long run. Compliers have proven that they are able to adapt more swiftly to new market challenges, or state regulations. In addition, consumer patterns seem to reward CSR behavior. Within a decade business-NGO cooperation has become a mainstream issue, and has led to many synergetic dynamics and yielded creative solutions.Los esfuerzos de las ONG para promover entre las empresas comportamientos sostenibles han logrado ganar el apoyo del público y han llegado a producir un creciente número de acuerdos internacionales voluntarios, iniciativas de políticas públicas e incluso regulación estatal. Algunas compañías han trabajado para superar la estigmatización intentando convertirse en ciudadanos corporativos responsables. Mientras que muchas otras compañías aún están tratando de evadir el debate acerca de la RSC y sus estándares de reporte, otras han ajustado sus estructuras para adoptarlos. Aunque esto tiende a aumentar los costos a corto plazo, la mayoría de las compañías que aceptan la RSC han logrado tener un mejor desempeño económico que las que se niegan a largo plazo. Las que cumplen han demostrado que son capaces de adaptarse más rápidamente a nuevos desafíos del mercado o a la reglamentación estatal. Además, los patrones de consumo parecen remunerar este comportamiento. En el espacio de una década, la cooperación entre industrias y ONG se ha convertido en un tema corriente, ha llevado a dinámicas de sinergia y ha rendido soluciones creativas

    Greater China's Accession to the WTO: Implications for International Trade/Production and for Hong Kong

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    The impact of the accession of China (PRC) and Chinese Taipei to the WTO in 2001 is estimated in this paper to be substantatial. Using a CGE model (GTAP Version 5) with 23 sectors and 25 regions China’s (PRC) GDP is foreseen as increasing by almost 6%, while Hong Kong gains and Chinese Taipei loses marginally. All three economies register noticeable export increases. China’s (PRC) growth is driven by a massive surge in textile and clothing production, while the automobile industry and other heavy industries will face severe restructuring problems. Focusing in on textiles and clothing trade around the world it becomes very obvious that China (PRC) will be a magnet for production, whereas economies that have profited from preferential access to certain markets (US and EU) will suffer greatly once quotas are removed by 2005. Hong Kong thereby can still profit from its role as a sourcing hub. If trade between the economies of Greater China is freed of all barriers the synergies and more efficient links would definitely enhance the growth potential, from which Taipei is bound to profit considerably. For Hong Kong the accession opens up a huge potential, but more than in the past it will have to compete with other WTO members to tap it

    Key Assumptions in AGE Trade Models: An Assessment using the Mirage Model

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    AGE models are among the main tools for assessing trade policies, but the adequacy of a model and the relevance of the results it delivers are wholly dependant on the analytical framework and on the parameters chosen. Based on the newly-built model Mirage (Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium, a model built by the Cepii, with the collaboration of the ITC, Geneva), this paper discusses the main aspects of these choices, and illustrates their consequences for trade policy assessment through various sensitivity analysis exercises, for scenarios designed on purpose. The aim is both to reach a better understanding of underlying mechanisms, and to provide a greater transparency to the analysis of trade policies through AGE models. The topics discussed include: - Imperfect competition and product differentiation, for which a new calibration procedure is proposed, in order to take more consistently advantage of the results of econometric studies, for a rather standard model of horizontal product differentiation under oligopolistic competition ?la Cournot. - Dynamic setting, with special attention devoted to the questions of production factors mobility and of market structure's adjustment, and of their interaction with trade evolutions. - Foreign direct investments, in the light of the recent empirical results. - Product demand, including the question of products quality. - Externalities of trade and investment flows on productivity. For each of these aspects, a specific context (aggregation and scenario) is first chosen, so as to enlighten the corresponding stakes. Various hypothesis and parametrizations are then studied alternatively. The aim is to assess how relevant each aspect is for trade policy analysis, and how robust its modelling is. The simulations are carried out using the multinational model Mirage, calibrated with the GTAP5 database, except for protection, where the MAcMaps database (Market Access Maps developed by ITC and CEPII on the basis of UNCTAD-TRAINS, AMAD, UNSD-COMTRADE and WTO notifications) is used

    The End of Textiles Quotas: A Case Study of the Impact on Bangladesh

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    This paper evaluates the effects on the Bangladeshi economy of phasing out textile and clothing quotas currently maintained by industrial countries. As part of the Uruguay Round WTO Agreements, these quotas will be completely abolished at the beginning of 2005. This will alter the competitiveness of various exporting countries, and those that have been less restricted by the quotas are expected to lose market share to their competitors. Bangladesh relies heavily on textile and clothing exports and is potentially very vulnerable to the abolition of the quotas. Based on assessments of quota restrictiveness and export similarity across countries and Bangladesh’s supply constraints, the paper concludes that Bangladesh could face significant pressure on its balance of payments, output and employment when the quotas are eliminated

    Impact of Russia’s WTO Accession on the Structure of the Russian Economy

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    In this paper we use a global computable general equilibrium model to examine the economic effects of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on the Russian economy. We employ the comparative static GTAP model and the version 5.4 Data Base, modified to take account of increasing returns to scale in several vital sectors; including oil and gas extraction, ferrous and non ferrous metals industries, and motor vehicles. We examine the impact of both complete elimination of tariffs and compare this with the more modest tariff reductions currently being proposed by Russia. The liberalization of services is also expected to be an important factor in Russia’s negotiations. We therefore also examine the impact of services liberalization in communication and business and financial services sectors. The results indicate that in the short run changes in Russia’s aggregate welfare are quite small -- however there are considerable structural implications resulting from trade and services liberalization. Expansions are expected in investment, the services sectors, motor vehicles and construction, while output of Russia’s traditional export commodities declines. These implications are found to be sensitive to the extent to which trade is liberalized and whether entry/exit is allowed in those industries which are subject to increasing returns to scale

    Evaluating the Effect of Domestic Support on International Trade: A Mercantilist Trade Restrictiveness Approach

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    Recent years have witnessed an ongoing debate regarding trade-distorting effects of domestic support provided to agricultural producers. High-income economies, such as the European Union (EU), initiated several reforms of their agricultural policies to decrease such distortions. New instruments, such as the Single Farm Payment (SFP) of the EU, which are supposedly decoupled from production, are also controversial because the extent to which these decoupled payments stimulate production through other coupling channels remain unclear. This study aims to assess, first, how trade-restrictive agricultural domestic support for international trade is and second, whether the introduction of decoupled support decreases the magnitude of this effect. Analyses of multilateral trade liberalization are commonly conducted using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. Methodologies to analyze the effects of market access policies and their restrictiveness to trade are sophisticated and well established, whereas the detailed representation of different and country-specific domestic support payments, and in particular decoupled payments, is still in the early stages of development. In addition, literature on the development of an index that measures the restrictiveness, and hence the distortions, of domestic support and its application remain scarce. This paper utilizes the standard GTAP framework as starting point. It is based on the version 8.2 GTAP database, which incorporates domestic support in form of price wedges taken from the most recent OECD’s PSE table. We apply an elaborate updating procedure to extend the GTAP modeling framework to capture more detailed domestic support payments, particularly distinguishing different payment categories and types according to their effect on farm-level output decisions. Then we disentangle the domestic support payments to match the OECD’s PSE data with the WTO box classification scheme and integrate this information into the ..


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    In addition to providing multiplier economic benefits, the tourism sector also has the potential to cause some latent and massive negative social impacts. For this reason, it is important to map out the orientation of the local community. This study analyzes the polarization of the local community's perceptions of sociocultural dynamics in the ecotourism development area. The local community that became the focus of the research consisted of five groups of respondents: traditional leaders, religious leaders, educational leaders, community leaders, and tourism actors. This research was conducted in the Bopunjur Ecotourism Area, Bogor Regency, West Java, precisely in seven ecotourism destinations, namely Ciawi, Caringin, Cibogo, Cipayung, Megamendung, Cisarua, and Tugu. This study used mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative approach. Data collection on social and cultural dynamics was done by distributing questionnaires to the respondents. The research instrument was a questionnaire designed closed-ended with guidance on one score-one indicator scoring system. The results showed that positive social situations, namely conducive situations, associations, cooperative situations, and productive collaborations were still more dominant than negative social situations: war, conflict, and dissociation. The polarization of the local community on sociocultural dynamics has a positive direction with a polarization scale that is aligned with each other so that there is an excellent opportunity to build productive collaboration among stakeholders in this are
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