296,191 research outputs found

    A Multi-Level Analysis of World Scientific Output in Pharmacology

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    The purpose of this chapter is to analyse international research in “pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics” (hereafter pharmacology) on the basis of the scientific papers listed in the Scopus multidisciplinary database. This primary objective is reached by answering the following questions (in the section on results). What weight does the subject area “pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics” carry in world-wide science? What is the percentage contribution made by the various regions of the world to the subject area “pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics”? Can certain regions be identified as leaders on that basis, as in other scientific contexts? Are emerging countries present in the field? Do the most productive countries also publish the largest number of journals? What features characterise the scientific output of companies that publish pharmacological papers

    An Undergraduate Toxicology Seminar Focusing on Ethical Reasoning and Communication Skill Development

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    The development of an undergraduate major in toxicology at Nazareth College provided the opportunity to develop a one-credit Principles of Toxicology Seminar designed to address ethical reasoning skills and communication (both oral and written), areas which can be challenging to address in traditional courses and which have been noted to be areas of deficiency in toxicology graduates. The seminar is a co-requisite to Principles of Toxicology, the introductory course in the major, and is built around the study of 5-7 environmental issues selected by the students. The issues are introduced through readings, documentaries, and student small group oral “environmental issue presentations.” Students then write “policy papers” through which they survey the primary literature to determine the health effects of the chemical(s) implicated in the issue and make a determination of whether they believe the data support the current exposure limits set by regulatory agencies. Student evaluations of the seminar using the IDEA metric indicate substantial progress on objectives related to critical thinking and oral and written communication skill development, among others, as well as overall very positive views on the seminar itself and the field of toxicology. Thus, this seminar may serve as a pedagogical model of a course that engages students with real-world environmental issues of interest to them, while facilitating the development of the ethical reasoning and communication skills that can be challenging to address in the traditional curriculum

    Dried blood spots in toxicology : from the cradle to the grave?

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    About a century after its first described application by Ivar Bang, the potential of sampling via dried blood spots (DBS) as an alternative for classical venous blood sampling is increasingly recognized. Perhaps best known is the use of DBS in newborn screening programs, ignited by the hallmark paper by Guthrie and Susi half a century ago. However, it is only recently that both academia and industry have recognized the many advantages that DBS sampling may offer for bioanalytical purposes, as reflected by the strong increase in published reports during the last few years. Currently, major DBS applications include newborn screening for metabolic disorders, epidemiological surveys (e. g. HIV monitoring), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), as well as toxicology. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the distinct subdisciplines of toxicology for which DBS sampling has been applied. DBS sampling for toxicological evaluation has been performed from birth until autopsy, aiming at the assessment of therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse, environmental contaminants, toxins, as well as (trace) elements, with applications situated in fields as toxicokinetics, epidemiology and environmental and forensic toxicology. We discuss the strengths and limitations of DBS in the different subdisciplines and provide future prospects for the use of this promising sampling technique in toxicology

    Casting a wide net: use of diverse model organisms to advance toxicology

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    © The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Hahn, M. E., & Sadler, K. C. Casting a wide net: use of diverse model organisms to advance toxicology. Disease Models & Mechanisms, 13, (2020): dmm.043844, doi: 10.1242/dmm.043844.Toxicology – the study of how chemicals interact with biological systems – has clear relevance to human health and disease. Persistent exposure to natural and synthetic chemicals is an unavoidable part of living on our planet; yet, we understand very little about the effects of exposure to the vast majority of chemicals. While epidemiological studies can provide strong statistical inference linking chemical exposure to disease, research in model systems is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of action and to predict outcomes. Most research in toxicology utilizes a handful of mammalian models that represent a few distinct branches of the evolutionary tree. This narrow focus constrains the understanding of chemical-induced disease processes and systems that have evolved in response to exposures. We advocate for casting a wider net in environmental toxicology research to utilize diverse model systems, including zebrafish, and perform more mechanistic studies of cellular responses to chemical exposures to shift the perception of toxicology as an applied science to that of a basic science. This more-inclusive perspective will enrich the field and should remain central to research on chemical-induced disease.K.C.S. acknowledges support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)(5R01AA018886). M.E.H. acknowledges support from the National Institute ofEnvironmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) through the Boston University SuperfundResearch Program (P42ES007381) and the Woods Hole Center for Oceans andHuman Health (NIEHS grant P01ES028938 and National Science Foundation grantOCE-1840381)

    Release of soluble metal ions from copper based dental alloys mesured by ICP-MS

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    Describes the release of soluble metal ions from copper based dental alloys mesured by ICP-MS. Presented at the annual congress of the british toxicology society

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 as a biomarker for detection of early liver disease

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    Study identifying an Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 as a biomarker for detection of early liver disease presented at the annual congress of the british toxicology societ

    Further studies of the efficacy of military, commercial and novel skin decontaminants against the chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard, soman and VX

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    Background/Aims: Following an incident involving toxic chemicals, deployment of countermeasures before the arrival of specialised services at the scene may provide a “therapeutic” window in which to mitigate skin absorption. Methods: Five potential candidates (itaconic acid, N,Nâ€Č-methylenebisacrylamide, 2-trifluoromethylacrylic acid, fuller's earth and Fast-ActÂź) previously found effective against a simulant (methyl salicylate) were evaluated against a 10 ÎŒL droplet of 14C-sulphur mustard (HD), soman (GD) or VX applied to the surface of porcine skin mounted on static skin diffusion cells. Results: All the decontaminants applied to the skin 5 min post exposure achieved a marked reduction in the amount of 14C contaminant remaining within the skin at 24 h. Itaconic acid significantly (p <.05) reduced the amount of 14C-HD, GD and VX remaining in the skin at 24 h. Additionally, 2-trifluoromethylacrylic acid significantly reduced the amount of 14C-HD, whilst fuller's earth significantly reduced the amounts of 14C-HD and VX recovered within the skin at 24 h. Conclusion: All of the products evaluated in this study performed well in reducing the dermal absorption of all the chemical warfare agents tested.Peer reviewe

    Oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide and menadione does not induce the secretion of IGFBP-5 in primary rat hepatocytes

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    Conference abstract describing how oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide and menadione does not induce the secretion of IGFBP-5 in primary rat hepatocytes. Presented at the 2010 annual congress of the british toxicology societ