2,623 research outputs found

    Low T3 Syndrome in Head-Injured Patients is Associated with Prolonged Suppression of Markers of Cell-Mediated Immune Response

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    Purpose:: To clarify the association between disturbed thyroid hormone metabolism (low T3 syndrome) and release of cytokines and markers of cell-mediated immune response. Material and Methods:: Concentrations of cytokines as well as of thyroid hormones were determined in 32 patients suffering from severe traumatic brain injury: interleukin-( IL-)1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor, transforming growth factor-(TGF-)β, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), neopterin, and β2-microglobulin (β2m) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid; triiodothyronine (T3), free T3, thyroxine (T4), free T4, thyrotropin, thyroxine-binding globulin, and albumin in serum. Additionally, clinical parameters were assessed: Glasgow Coma Score, CT scan, intracranial pressure, Glasgow Outcome Score, and occurrence of pneumonia. Results:: Among 31 patients with a low T3 syndrome, those with additional low serum T4 levels (n = 13) showed a prolonged suppression of serum β2m, neopterin, and sIL-2R, and a higher secondary increase of serum β2m, neopterin, and TGF-β, as well as lower T3 levels (all p < 0.05). These patients also had a longer stay in the intensive care unit (34 ± 6 days vs. 22 ± 12 days; p = 0.008). Increased levels of β2m correlated with a preceding decrease of thyrotropin (cerebrospinal fluid: r = -0.53; p = 0.004; serum: r = -0.41; p = 0.029). Associations of thyroid hormone metabolism with either other cytokines or with clinical parameters were not detected. Conclusion:: These results show that low T3 syndrome is a very common pathophysiological feature after severe traumatic brain injury. The association of a low T3 syndrome in combination with low serum T4 levels, with an altered time course of markers of cell-mediated immunity led the authors to hypothesize that a disturbed thyroid hormone metabolism may be interrelated with a prolonged cellular immune dysfunction after traumatic brain injur

    To verify four 5-year-old mathematical models to predict the outcome of ICU patients

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    The aim of this study is to verify calibration and discrimination after 5 years in the case mix of patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the year 2000. In this way we want to perform a quality control of our ICU in order to justify the increased amount of money spent for intensive care.A prospective study has been made on the 357 patients admitted to the ICU during the year 2000. The Apache II score was calculated within the first 24 hours and, depending on the length of stay in the ICU, on the 5(th), 10(th) and 15(th) day after ICU admission. On the basis of the 4 mathematical models death risk has been calculated for each of the 4 times. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test was performed for calibration and ROC curves for discrimination, always for each of the 4 mathematical models.The 1(st) model, at 24 hours from ICU admission, showed a bad calibration (p=0.000088), while the ROC curve was 0.744+/-0.32. Also the 2(nd) model, at the 5(th) day from admission, showed a bad calibration (p=0.000588), with ROC curve of 0.827+/-0.04. The 3(rd) model (10(th) day), was well calibrated (p=0.112247) and discriminating (ROC=0.888 +/-0.04). Finally the models at 15 days showed again a bad calibration (p=0.001422) but a very good discrimination (area=0.906+/-0.06).Developing mathematical models to predict mortality within ICUs can be useful to assess quality of care, even if these models should not be the only ICU quality controls, but must be accompanied by other indicators, looking at quality of life of the patients after ICU discharge
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